Anno Urbis - The Roman Empire Online


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Postrídié éius diéí Ulixés ex hác ínsulá quam celerrimé discédere in animó habébat. Circé tamen cum haec cógnóvisset, ex odió ad amórem conversa omnibus precibus eum óráre et obtestárí coepit ut paucós diés apud sé morárétur; quá ré tandem impetrátá tanta beneficia in eum contulit ut facile eí persuásum sit ut diútius manéret. Postquam tamen tótum annum apud Circén cónsúmpserat, Ulixés mágnó désíderió patriae suae mótus est. Sociís igitur ad sé convocátís quid in animó habéret ostendit. Ubi tamen ad lítus déscendit, návem suam tempestátibus tam adflíctam invénit ut ad návigandum paene inútilis esset. Hác ré cógnitá omnia quae ad návís reficiendás úsuí essent comparárí iussit, quá in ré tantam díligentiam omnés adhibébant ut ante tertium diem opus perfécerint. At Circé ubi omnia ad profectiónem paráta esse vídit, rem aegré ferébat et Ulixem vehementer obsecrábat ut eó cónsilió désisteret. Ille tamen, né anní tempore a návigátióne exclúderétur, mátúrandum sibi exístimávit, et tempestátem idóneam nactus návem solvit. Multa quidem perícula Ulixí subeunda erant antequam in patriam suam perveníret, quae tamen hóc locó longum est perscríbere.



The numbers refer to the page of text and the line on the page respectively.

3.6. Danaé. Many proper names in this book are words borrowed by Latin from Greek, and have forms not given in the regular Latin declensions. It will not be necessary to learn the declension of such words.

  1. enim. This word commonly stands second in its clause.

  2. turbábat. Notice that this verb and dormiébat below are in the imperfect tense to denote a state of things existing at the past time indicated by territa est.

autem. This word has the same peculiarity of position as enim; so also igitur, which occurs in line 11.

  1. Seríphum. Notice that Latin says 'the island Seriphos,' but English more often 'the island of Seriphos.'

  2. appulsa est. Postquam is regularly followed by the perfect or present indicative, but the English translation usually requires the pluperfect.

  1. quódam. Quídam means 'certain' as applied to some person or thing not fully described, while certus means 'certain' in the sense of 'determined.' 'sure,'

ad domum. This means 'to the house'; 'to be brought home' would be domum addúcí, without the preposition.

  1. Ille is often used, as here, when the subject is changed to a person mentioned in the preceding sentence. In this use it is to be translated 'he.'

  1. benefició. See the derivation of this word in the vocabulary.

  1. multós annós. Duration of time is regularly expressed in the accusative case.

  1. eam. Latin has no pronoun of the third person, and is often takes the place of one; it is then to be translated 'he,' 'she,' 'it,' 'they,' according to its form.

  1. haec. The literal translation would be 'these things,' but we must say 'thus' or 'as follows.'

  1. 1. es. With iam dúdum and similar expressions of duration, the present indicative is often used to denote an action or state begun in the past but continuing in the present. The English equivalent is the perfect.

híc, is not the pronoun, but an adverb.

  1. mihi. This dative may be translated 'for me.' How would 'to me' with a verb of motion be put?

  2. refer. Dícó, dúcó, fació, and feró have the imperative forms _díc, dúc, fac_, and fer, instead of díce, etc.

  3. Perseus. When the subordinate and the principal clause of a Latin sentence have the same subject, this usually stands first, followed by the subordinate clause.

haec. Here a different rendering is required from that suggested in the note on 3, 25. What is it? Notice that it is necessary to know the literal significance of the Latin words, but that the translation must often be something quite different if it is to be acceptable English. The rule for translation is: Discover the exact meaning of the original; then express the same idea correctly and, if you can, elegantly in the language into which you are translating.

  1. continentem. What is the derivation of this word?

vénit. Is this present or perfect? How do you know?

  1. Graeás. The Graeae were three old women who had one eye and one tooth in common, and took turns in using them.

  2. galeam. This belonged to Pluto, the god of the underworld of the dead, and whosoever wore it was invisible. The story is that Perseus compelled the Graeae to tell him how to obtain the helps to his enterprise by seizing their tooth and eye.

  1. pedibus, 'on his feet,' dative of indirect object.

induit. See the note on 3, 13.

áera. Áér is borrowed from Greek, and keeps this Greek form for its accusative.

  1. volábat. Distinguish between voló, voláre, and voló, velle.

  2. céterís. Céterí is used to denote all not already named ('the other'), while alií denotes some of those who have not been already named ('other').

  3. specié horribilí, 'of terrible appearance.' ablative of description. A noun never stands alone in this construction,

eárum. See the note on 3, 22.

  1. contécta. This and factae below are used as predicate adjectives, not to form the pluperfect passive with erant. Translate, therefore, 'were covered.' not 'had been covered.'

  1. vertébantur. The imperfect here denotes customary action, one of its regular uses.

  2. Ille. See the note on 3, 16.

  3. hóc modó, ablative of manner.

  4. vénit, dormiébat. The perfect simply expresses an action which took place in past time, the imperfect tells of a state of things existing at that past time.

  1. fugit. When dum means 'while,' 'as,' it is followed by the present indicative, even when used of past events.

  2. fécit. Like postquam, ubi has the present or perfect indicative, where English would use the pluperfect.

  1. 2. illó tempore, ablative of time.

régnábat. Observe the force of the tense, and try to find the reason for each change of tense in this paragraph.

Híc. This must here be translated simply 'he.' Compare the use of Ille, 3, 16.

  1. veniébat. See the note on 4, 18.

  1. omnium, 'of all men.' or 'of all.' The adjective is used as a noun, as in the second of the English expressions.

óráculum. It was believed in antiquity that the will of the gods and a knowledge of future events might be learned at certain shrines, of which the most famous were those of Apollo at Delphi, of Zeus or Jupiter at Dodona, and of Hammon in Egypt. Hammon was really an Egyptian god, represented as having the horns of a ram, but he was identified by the Greeks with Zeus and by the Romans with Jupiter.

  1. fíliam. Where there is no ambiguity, the possessive is often omitted in Latin.

  2. autem, often, as here, simply introduces an explanation ('now'),

nómine, 'by name.'

  1. Cépheus. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

  2. cívís suós, 'his subjects.'

  1. certam. See the note on quódam, 3, 15. Diés is regularly masculine, but when used of an appointed day it is often feminine.

omnia, 'all things,' 'everything,' or 'all.' See the note on omnium, line 6.

  1. déplórábant, tenébant. Be careful to show the meaning of the tense by your translation.

  1. quaerit. The present is often used of a past action instead of the perfect, to bring the action more vividly before us as if it were taking place now. This is called the historical present.

  2. haec geruntur, 'this is going on.'

  3. horribilí. Here the adjective is made emphatic by being put before its noun; in 4, 14 the same effect is gained by putting horribilí last in its clause.

  1. omnibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (in+iació). Translate 'inspired in all,' but the literal meaning is 'threw into all.'

  1. induit. See the note on 3, 13.

áera. See the note on 4, 11.

  1. 2. suó, éius. Distinguish carefully between these words. Suus is used of something belonging to the subject, éius of something belonging to some other person or thing just mentioned.

  1. volat. See the note on 4, 25.

  1. sustulit. Notice that the perfect forms of tolló are the same as those of sufferó (sub + feró), 'endure.'

  2. neque, here to be translated 'and ... not.' Neque is thus used regularly for et nón.

  1. exanimáta, used here as a predicate adjective.

  1. rettulit. 'To give thanks' or 'thank' is usually grátiás agere, as in 3, 19; grátiam referre means 'to show one's gratitude,' 'to recompense' or 'requite.'

  1. dúxit. This word came to mean 'marry,' because the bridegroom 'led' his bride in a wedding procession to his own home. It will be seen, therefore, that it can be used only of the man.

Paucós annós. See the note on 3, 20.

  1. omnís. What does the quantity of the i tell you about the form?

  1. 1. quod, not the relative pronoun, but a conjunction.

  1. eó, the adverb.

in átrium. Although inrúpit means 'burst into,' the preposition is nevertheless required with the noun to express the place into which he burst.

  1. ille. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

  1. Acrisí. In Nepos, Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil, the genitive singular of second-declension nouns in -ius and -ium ends in í, not ; but the nominative plural ends in , and the dative and ablative plural in iís.

  1. istud. Remember that iste is commonly used of something connected with the person addressed. Here the meaning may be 'that oracle I told you of.' See 3, 4.

  1. Lárísam. See the note on 3, 12.

neque enim, 'for ... not,' as if simply nón enim, but Latin uses neque to connect the clauses.

  1. in omnís partís, 'in all directions' or 'in every direction.'

  2. Multí. See the note on omnium, 5, 6.

  1. discórum. The discus was a round, flat piece of stone or metal, and the athletes tried to see who could throw it farthest.

  2. cású. This is one of the ablatives of manner that do not take cum.

  3. stábat. Notice the tense.


  1. 2. omnium hominum. This means 'all men' in the sense of 'all mankind.'

  1. óderat. Ódí is perfect in form, but present in meaning; and the pluperfect has in like manner the force of an imperfect.
  1. mediá nocte, 'in the middle of the night,' 'in the dead of night.'

  1. Nec tamen, 'not ... however.' See the note on neque enim, 7, 12.

  2. movébant. Contrast this tense with appropinquáverant and excitátí sunt.

  1. Tálí modó = hóc modó, 4, 20.

  1. á pueró, 'from a boy,' 'from boyhood.'

exercébat, the imperfect of customary action, as is also cónsúmébat.

  1. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

  2. artí, dative of indirect object with the intransitive verb studébat.

  1. 2. omnibus víribus, 'with all his might,' ablative of manner.

  1. é vítá. Notice that the preposition denoting separation appears both with the noun and in the verb. Compare in átrium inrúpit, 7, 3.

  2. neque quisquam, 'and not any one,' i.e. 'and no one.' Quisquam is used chiefly in negative sentences.

  3. voluit, 'was willing.'

  1. facit. See the note on 4, 25.

  2. nómine. See the note on 5, 8.

  3. vir crúdélissimus, not 'cruelest man,' but 'most cruel man.' The superlative is often thus used to denote simply a high degree of the quality.

cónsuéverat. Inceptive verbs end in scó and denote the beginning of an action or state. The perfect and pluperfect of such verbs often represent the state of things resulting from the completion of the action, and are then to be translated as present and imperfect respectively. So cónsuéscó = 'I am becoming accustomed,' cónsuéví = 'I have become accustomed' or 'am accustomed,' cónsuéveram = 'I had become accustomed' or 'was accustomed.'

  1. sacrifició, 'for the sacrifice,' dative of purpose.

ea. Why is diés feminine here? See the note on certam, 5, 13.

  1. omnia. See the note on 5, 13.

  1. capitibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb _(in + pónó)_.

  2. iam. The omission of the conjunction that would naturally join this clause with the preceding, and the repetition of iam, which thus in a way connects the two clauses, reflect the imminence of the danger and heighten our anxiety for the hero. Observe too how the tenses of the verbs contribute to the vividness of the picture. We see Hercules at the altar and the priest, knife in hand, about to give the fatal blow.

  1. alteró. Supply íctú.

  2. Thébís, locative case. Notice that some names of towns are plural in form.

  1. Thébánís, dative with the adjective fínitimí.

autem, 'now.'

  1. Thébás. Names of towns are used without a preposition to express the place to which.

  2. veniébant, postulábant, imperfect of customary action.

  1. cívís suós, 'his fellow-citizens.' Compare 5, 10.

hóc stípendió, ablative of separation.

  1. atque. This conjunction adds an important statement by way of supplement. Here the meaning is something like 'and not only that, but.'

  1. 11. conversa. Est and sunt are frequently not expressed with the perfect participle.

  1. suós ipse suá. Notice how the enormity of the crime is emphasized by the use of all these words repeating the same idea.

  1. óráculum Delphicum. See the note on 5, 6.

hóc óráculum omnium = hóc omnium óráculórum.

  1. Hóc in templó. Monosyllabic prepositions often stand between the noun and an adjective modifying it.

  1. 1. quí. Remember that the relative pronoun agrees in gender, number, and person with its antecedent; that its case depends upon its use. How are the person and number of quí shown?

  1. hominibus. See the note on 9, 2.

  1. neque. See the note on 6, 8.

  1. Tíryntha. This is a Greek accusative form. See the note on áera, 4, 11.

  1. Duodecim annós, accusative of duration of time.

  2. Eurystheó. The English verb 'serve' is transitive, but servió ('be subject to') is intransitive and takes an indirect object.

  1. quae. See the note on line 1. What is the case of quae?

  1. Prímum is chiefly used in enumeration, prímó (line 6) in contrasting an action or state with one that follows it.

  1. sécum. The preposition cum follows and is joined to the reflexive and personal pronouns, usually also to the relative pronoun.

  1. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

  1. respírandí, the genitive of the gerund. It modifies facultás. The gerund corresponds to the English verbal noun in -ing.

  1. 5. Hóc. We might expect haec referring to Hydram, but a demonstrative pronoun is commonly attracted into the gender of the predicate noun (here mónstrum).

cui erant, 'which had,' literally 'to which there were.' This construction is found only with sum. It is called the dative of possession.

  1. rés. In rendering this word choose always with great freedom the most suitable English word.

  1. 8. mágní perículí. We say 'one of great danger.'

  1. éius. What possessive would be used to modify sinistrá?

  1. hóc cónátú, ablative of separation.

  1. comprehendérunt. See the note on 3, 13.

unde = ex quibus.

  1. auxilió Hydrae, 'to the aid of the Hydra,' but literally for aid (i.e. as aid) to the Hydra,' for Hydrae is dative. This is called the double dative construction, auxilió the dative of purpose, and Hydrae the dative of reference, i.e. the dative denoting the person interested.

  2. abscídit. See the note on 4, 25.

mordébat, 'kept biting,' the imperfect of repeated action.

  1. tálí modó. See the note on 9, 13.

interfécit. We have now had several verbs meaning 'kill.' Interfició is the most general of these; necó (line 4) is used of killing by unusual or cruel means, as by poison; occídó (12, 23) is most commonly used of the 'cutting down' of an enemy in battle.

  1. reddidit, as well as imbuit, has sagittás for its object, but we must translate as if we had eás with reddidit.

  1. ad sé. Compare this construction with the use of the dative in 4, 2. Notice that sé does not refer to Herculem, the subject of referre, but to Eurystheus, the subject of Iussit. When the reflexive thus refers to the subject of the principal verb rather than to the subject of the subordinate verb with which it s directly connected, it is called indirect.

  2. tantae audáciae. The genitive of description, like the ablative of description, consists always of a noun with some modifying word. Compare specié horribilí, 4, 14.

autem. Compare 5, 8 and 10, 21.

  1. incrédibilí celeritáte, ablative of description.

  2. vestígiís, ablative of means.

  3. ipsum, contrasts cervum with vestígiís.

  4. omnibus víribus. See the note on 10, 2.

  1. 1. currébat, 'he kept running.'

sibi, dative of reference. It need not be translated,

ad quiétem, 'for rest.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by ad.

  1. cucurrerat. The pluperfect is sometimes used with postquam when the lapse of time is denoted.

  2. cursú, ablative of cause.
quí exanimátus erat. The participle is often equivalent to a relative clause.
  1. rettulit. See the note on 13, 19.

  1. rem. See the note on rés, 13, 8.

  1. apró, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (_ob + curró_).

  2. tímóre perterritus. It is not necessary to translate both words.

  1. iniécit, i.e. upon the boar.

summá cum difficultáte. Compare this with omnibus víribus, 13, 27, and notice that cum may be omitted with the ablative of manner when there is an adjective. For the position of cum, see the note on 11, 25.

  1. ad Eurystheum. We are told elsewhere that Eurystheus was so frightened when he saw the boar that he hid in a cask.

vívus. Why have we the nominative here, but the accusative (vívum) in line 5?

  1. quartó. The capture of the Erymanthian boar is usually given as the third labor and the capture of the Cerynean stag as the fourth.

nárrávimus. The writer sometimes uses the first person plural in speaking of himself, instead of the first person singular. This is called the plural of modesty, and is the same as the English usage.

  1. in Arcadiam. How does this differ in meaning from in Arcadiá?

  1. appeteret. The subjunctive introduced by cum, 'since,' may express the reason for the action of the main verb.

  1. Herculés. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

  1. quod, conjunction, not pronoun.

reliquós centaurós, 'the rest of the centaurs,' 'the other centaurs.' Compare mediá nocte, 9, 5. Notice that reliquí means about the same as céterí, and see the note on 4, 13.

  1. inquit, historical present. This verb is used parenthetically with direct quotations.

  1. 1. dabó. Notice that Latin is more exact than English in the use of the future tense in subordinate clauses. In English we often use the present in the subordinate clause and leave it to the principal verb to show that the time is future.

  1. pervénérunt. See the note on 4, 26.

  1. cónstitit, from cónsistó, not cónstó.

  1. fugá. Latin says 'by flight,' not 'in flight.'

  2. ex spéluncá. See the note on 10, 3.

  1. locum, the direct object of Adiit, which is here transitive. We might also have ad locum with adeó used intransitively.

  1. 4. Herculí. See the note on 10, 15.

labórem. This labor is usually given as the sixth, the destruction of the Stymphalian birds as the fifth.

  1. tria mília boum, 'three thousand cattle,' literally 'three thousands of cattle.' The partitive genitive is the regular construction with the plural mília, but the singular mílle is commonly used as an adjective, like English 'thousand.' Thus 'one thousand cattle' would be mílle bovés.

  2. ingentís mágnitúdinis. See the note on tantae audáciae, 13, 23.

  3. neque enim umquam, 'for ... never.' See the note on neque enim, 7,

  1. multae operae. See the note on mágní perículí, 13, 8.

  2. duodévígintí pedum, i.e. in width.

dúxit. This word is used with reference to the progress of work on a wall or ditch from one end of it to the other.

  1. opus. Compare this word with operae and labóre, line 12. Labor is used of heavy or exhausting labor, opera of voluntary exertion or effort, opus of that upon which one labors or of the completed work.

  1. imperáverat. This verb takes an indirect object to express the person ordered (eí). The action commanded is expressed by the subjunctive in a clause introduced by ut and used as the object of imperó (ut necáret). Notice that this may be translated 'that he should kill' or 'to kill.' Compare now the construction with iubeó, 13, 22, with which the command is expressed by the accusative and infinitive (_Herculem referre_).

  1. carne. Véscor is an intransitive verb and governs the ablative.

  1. appropinquandí. See the note on 12, 26.

  2. cónstitit, from cónstó. Compare 15, 10.

pedibus, 'on foot,' literally 'by his feet.'

  1. consúmpsisset. The imperfect and pluperfect tenses of the subjunctive are used with cum, 'when,' to describe the circumstances of the action of the main verb. Compare 14, 20, and the note.

  2. hóc cónátú. See the note on 13, 11.

  3. peteret. The subjunctive is used with ut to express purpose. The best translation is usually the infinitive ('to ask'), but the Latin infinitive is not used in model prose to express purpose.

  1. 3. ávolárent. This is not subjunctive of purpose, but of result, as is indicated by tam.

  1. ex. Compare this with ab, 16, 21, and , 16, 13. We commonly translate all of these 'from,' but the real meanings are 'out of,' 'away from,' and 'down from' respectively.

Crétá. See the note on 3, 12.

  1. esset. See the note on 14, 20.

  2. ínsulae, dative with the compound verb (ad + propinquó).

appropinquáret. See the note on 16, 25.

  1. tanta ... ut. Notice how frequently the clause of result is connected with a demonstrative word in the main clause.

  1. návigandí imperítus, 'ignorant of navigation,' 'inexperienced in sailing.' See the note on 12, 26.

  1. cum, the conjunction.

ingentí labóre. See the note on summá cum difficultáte, 14, 13.

  1. ut redúceret. See the note on 16, 27.

  2. carne. See the note on 16, 19.

véscébantur, imperfect of customary action.

  1. 3. ut tráderentur. Notice that postuló, like imperó, takes an object-clause introduced by ut and having its verb in the subjunctive.

sibi, the indirect reflexive. See the note on 13, 22.

  1. írá ... interfécit, 'became furiously angry and killed the king,' literally 'moved by wrath killed the king.' The participle is frequently best rendered by a finite verb.

  1. 4. cadáver. The subject of an infinitive stands in the accusative case. We might translate here 'and gave orders that his body should be thrown.' See the note on 16, 17.

  1. míra rérum commútátió. When a noun has both an adjective and a genitive modifier, this order of the words is common.

  2. cum cruciátú, ablative of manner.

necáverat. See the note on interfécit, 13, 18.

  1. referébant. See the note on 6, 16.

modo. This is the adverb, not a case of modus, the dative and ablative singular of which would be modó. Make a practice of carefully observing the quantity of vowels.

  1. órábant. Notice that this verb, like imperó and postuló, takes ut and the subjunctive.

  1. ad návigandum. See the note on ad quiétem, 14, 1.

  1. post, here an adverb of time.

  1. dícitur. Notice that the Latin construction is personal ('the nation is said to have consisted'), while English commonly has the impersonal construction ('it is said that the nation consisted').

  2. reí mílitáris, 'the art of war.'

  1. mandávit. See the note on 16, 17.

  2. Amázonibus, dative after the compound verb.

  1. 1. persuásit. Notice that this verb governs the same construction that we have already found used with imperó and mandó.

  1. sécum. See the note on 12, 19.

  1. appulit. Supply návem.

  2. docéret. A clause of purpose is frequently introduced by a relative. Translate like the ut-clause of purpose, here 'to make known,' literally 'who was to make known.'

  1. mágnó interválló, ablative of degree of difference.

  1. nón mágna. The effect of the position of these words may be reproduced by translating 'but not a large one.'

neutrí. The plural is used because the reference is to two parties, each composed of several individuals. 'Neither' of two individuals would be neuter.

  1. volébant, dedit. Consider the tenses. Each army waited for some time for the other to cross; finally Hercules gave the signal.

  1. occíderint. The perfect subjunctive is sometimes used in result clauses after a past tense in the principal clause. This is contrary to the general principle of the sequence of tenses, which requires the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive after a past tense, the present or perfect subjunctive after a present or future tense.

  2. Virí. Compare this with hominibus, 12, 2.

  3. praestábant. Compare the tense with praestitérunt, line 21.

  1. neu. As neque or nec is used for 'and not,' so néve or neu for 'and that not' in an object-clause or a clause of purpose.

  1. 1. quibus, 'and by these,' The relative is much used in Latin to connect a new sentence with the one preceding. When so used, it is generally best rendered by 'and' or 'but' and a demonstrative or personal pronoun.

ita ... ut. See the note on 17, 9.

  1. essent, most easily explained as the subjunctive of attraction. By this is meant that the verb is attracted into the mood of the clause upon which it depends.

  1. púgnátum est, 'the battle raged' or 'they fought,' literally 'it was fought,' Intransitive verbs are often thus used impersonally in the passive, with the subject implied in the verb itself, as púgnátum est = púgna púgnáta est.

  1. aestátis, partitive genitive. Notice that multum is used as a noun.

  1. nactus. The perfect active participle is wanting in Latin, but the perfect participle of deponent verbs is active in meaning.

  1. specié horribilí. See the note on 4, 14.

  1. timóre perterrití. See the note on 14, 11.

continébantur, 'kept themselves shut up.' This is the so-called reflexive use of the passive, in which the subject is represented as acting upon itself.

pecora. This word is used of herds of cattle, pecudés (line 25) of single animals, especially sheep.

  1. commótus cónsuluit. See the note on 18, 4.

  1. 3. líberáret. See the note on 16, 27.

óráculó. Notice that párére is intransitive and has the dative of indirect object, while 'obey' is transitive. It may help to understand the Latin construction if you translate such verbs as páreó by intransitives, here 'to submit to.'

  1. sacrifició. See the note on 10, 11.

  2. ipsó temporis punctó quó, 'at the very moment when.'

  1. égressus. See the note on 20, 13.

dé rébus ... factus est, 'was informed of the state of things,' literally 'was made more certain about the things which were being done.' In what gender, number, person, and case is quae? Give a reason for each.

  1. posset. The subjunctive is used because the words of the king are quoted indirectly. He said sí potes, 'if you can.'

  1. Ipse. Notice the use of this word in contrasts, frequently, as here, of a person with that which belongs to him or with his subordinates.

  2. inter sé, 'to one another.'

  1. esset, subjunctive in an indirect question. The direct form would be Quantum perículum est? ('How great is the danger?'). multás terrás, just as we say 'many lands,'

  2. Európae. Compare Thébánís, 10, 21.

  3. in utróque lítore, 'on each shore,' 'on both shores.'

  4. columnás. The ancients believed that the Rock of Gibraltar was the pillar set up by Hercules on the European side.

  1. 4. tantum, an adverb.

  1. dederit. See the note on 19, 22.

  1. quó in locó. See the note on 11, 25. essent. See the note on 21, 22.

  2. sibi, the indirect reflexive.

  1. et ... et, 'both ... and.'

  1. prógredí, 'from proceeding.'

  2. prohibébant, 'attempted to prevent,' imperfect of attempted action. Notice that the use of the imperfect to express customary, repeated, or attempted action follows naturally from its use to denote action going on in past time. The present, the tense which denotes action going on in present time, has the same special uses.

  3. barbarí. This word was used by the Greeks of all other peoples; by the Romans it was used of all but the Greeks and themselves.

  1. cecidérunt. Let the quantity of the i tell you whether this comes from cadó or caedó. Is occíderint a compound of cadó or caedó?

  2. in tálibus rébus, i.e. when a god intervenes in behalf of his favorite.

  3. nihil incommodí, 'no harm,' literally 'nothing of harm'; incommodí is partitive genitive.

  1. 2. quam celerrimé, 'as rapidly as possible.' Quam with the superlative expresses the highest possible degree.

  1. Necesse, predicate adjective with erat, the subject being hás tránsíre.

  1. citerióre. The Romans called upper Italy Gallia Citerior, 'Hither Gaul,' because it was occupied by Gallic tribes.

  2. perenní. Learn the derivation of this word. The meaning of a word may often be seen most easily and remembered most surely by noticing its derivation,

téctí, used as predicate adjective.

  1. cópiam. Notice carefully the meaning of this word. In what sense have we found the plural cópiae used?

  2. rébus, 'preparations.' See the note on rés, 13, 8.

cónsúmpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

  1. omnium opíniónem. Hitherto we have had opíniónem omnium, but here omnium is made emphatic by being placed first.

  1. itinere, ablative of cause.

fessus, 'since he was weary.' Notice that a Latin adjective or participle must often be expanded into a clause in the translation.

  1. Haud = nón. It modifies a single word, usually an adjective or adverb.

  1. modo. See the note on 18, 10.

ingentí mágnitúdine. Compare ingentis mágnitúdinis, 16, 7.

  1. boum. Learn the declension of this word from the vocabulary.

  2. né. A negative clause of purpose is introduced by .

  1. 2. omnibus locís. Locus modified by an adjective is often used without in in the ablative of place.

  1. núsquam. We say 'could not find anywhere,' but Latin prefers to combine the negative with another word.

  1. reliquís. See the note on reliquós centaurós, 14, 26.

  2. é bóbus. Compare boum, 23, 23. With únus the ablative with ex or is commonly used instead of the partitive genitive.

  1. neque quicquam. See the note on 10, 4.

  1. móre suó, 'according to his custom.'

turbátus, 'was confused ... and.' See the note on íra ... interfécit, 18, 4.

  1. in. See the note on in átrium, 7, 3.

  1. respírandí. See the note on 12, 26.

  1. 2. quam quós, for quam eós quós.

  1. cui. See the note on cui erant, 13, 5.

  2. Herculí imperáverat, 'had enjoined upon Hercules.'

  1. Eurystheó. See the note on óráculó, 21, 3.

  1. quaesíverat. With this verb the person of whom the question is asked is expressed in the ablative with ab, dé, or ex.

  1. orbis terrárum, 'of the world,' literally 'of the circle of lands.'

  1. umerís suís, ablative of means, but we say 'on his shoulders.'

né. See the note on 23, 24.

décideret. Notice the force of the prefix .

  1. mírátus, 'wondering at.' The perfect participle of deponent verbs is often best rendered into English by a present participle.

  1. 3. Herculí, dative with pródesse.

ille. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

  1. certó, the adverb.

  1. vénisset. What would the form be in the direct question?

inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

  1. fíliábus. To avoid confusion with the corresponding forms of deus and fílius, the dative and ablative plural of dea and fília sometimes end in ábus.

sponte. This noun is practically confined to the ablative singular, in prose usually with meá, tuá, or suá, 'of my, your, his own accord.'

  1. posset, subjunctive because indirect. The thought of Hercules was _sí potest_.

  1. abesset. This also is indirect, quoting absum.

  2. umerís. See the note on 25, 26.

  1. pauca mília. Extent of space, like duration of time, is expressed by the accusative,

passuum. See the note on 16, 6.

  1. ita ut, 'as'

accépissent. Hitherto we have found the indicative in causal clauses introduced by quod. The subjunctive indicates that the reason is quoted; the Hesperides said quod accépimus.

  1. grátiás égit. See the note on 6, 16.

  1. 2. é labóribus. See the note on 24, 7.

  1. Herculí praecéperat = Herculí imperáverat, 25, 12.

  1. posset, subjunctive because it quotes the thought of Eurystheus, poterit.

  2. ut ... traheret. This clause is not itself the object of dedit, but in apposition with the object (Negótium).

  3. omnium, partitive genitive.

  1. nárrámus. The present is sometimes used with antequam to express future action, as in English with 'before.' See the note on 15, 1.

aliénum, predicate adjective, the subject of vidétur being pauca ... própónere. In the passive videó may mean 'be seen,' but it usually means 'seem.'

  1. qui ídem, 'which also,' literally 'which the same.'

  2. Ut, 'when.'

  3. dédúcébantur, customary action.

  1. Stygis flúminis. We say 'river Styx,' but 'Mississippi River.'

quó, ablative of means.

  1. necesse. See the note on 23, 3.

possent. The subjunctive is used with antequam to denote that the action is expected or intended.

  1. in. We say 'over.'

  1. prius. Notice that Latin is here more exact than English, using the comparative because only two actions are spoken of.

dedisset, subjunctive because indirect. Charon said nisi dederis (future perfect), nón tránsveham, 'unless you first give (shall have given), I will not carry you across.'

  1. 1. mortuí, used as a noun, 'of the dead man.'

eó cónsilió, 'with this purpose,' 'to this end.' The clause ut ... posset is in apposition with cónsilió.

  1. Ut. Compare 27, 14.

  1. quod cum fécissent, 'and when they had done this.' See the note on quibus, 20, 1.

  1. Stábant, 'there stood.' What is its subject?

  1. mortuís, dative of indirect object.

et. Notice that ambiguity is avoided by a change of conjunctions, et connecting the clauses and -que connecting praemia and poenás. Of these connectives, et connects two ideas that are independent of each other and of equal importance; -que denotes a close connection, often of two words that together express a single idea; while ac or atque (see line 18) adds something of greater importance.

  1. et. Multí is often joined by et to another adjective modifying the same noun.

  1. ex. Compare 25, 18.

  1. sé sociós, direct object and predicate accusative respectively.

  1. 3. né. After verbs of fearing must be rendered 'that,' ut, 'that not.' Notice, however, that the negative idea is as clearly present here as in the other clauses introduced by that we have met, for Charon wishes that the thing may not happen.

  1. fécisset, indirect for féceris.

  1. refúgerit. See the note on 19, 22.

  1. quae cum ita essent, 'and this being the case,' 'and so,' literally 'since which things were so.'

  2. líberátus. See the note on írá ... interfécit, 18, 4.

  3. quae, object of perscríbere, which is the subject of est; longum is predicate adjective.

  4. est. We say 'would be.'

aetáte, ablative of specification. Translate 'when he was now advanced in age' (i.e. 'late in life'), and see the note on fessus, 23, 15.

  1. 1. accidit. This is one of several impersonal verbs which take for their subject a clause of result (ut ... occíderit).

  1. ut ... íret, a clause of result; used as the subject of esset, mós being predicate.

quis. After sí, nisi, né, and num, this is not the interrogative, but an indefinite pronoun ('any one'),

occídisset, indirect for occíderit, which would be the form used in the laws; or it may be explained as subjunctive by attraction to íret.

  1. tránseant, not 'they are crossing,' but 'they are to cross.' The direct form would be _tránseámus ('How in the world are we to get across?'), subjunctive because the question expresses doubt. This is called the deliberative subjunctive.

  1. prógressus, 'after advancing.'

  2. revertébátur. This verb is deponent in the present, imperfect, and future.

  1. humí, locative, 'on the ground.'

né. See the note on 23, 24.

suí ulcíscendí, 'of avenging himself.' This is called the gerundive construction. It is regularly used instead of the gerund when the gerund would have an accusative object (sé ulcíscendí). Notice that the gerund is a verbal noun; the gerundive a verbal adjective, agreeing with its noun like any other adjective.

  1. morientis, 'of a dying man.' Compare mortuí, 28, 1.

  2. vís, from voló.

  1. sí ... vénerit, 'if you ever suspect him.' What is the literal meaning? Notice that we use the present, while Latin by the use of the future perfect indicates that the action is to precede that of the main clause.

  2. inficiés. The future indicative is sometimes used, as in English, for the imperative.

  3. nihil malí. See the note on 22, 26.

suspicáta. See the note on 25, 27.

  1. Iolén, fíliam, captívam, direct object, appositive, and predicate accusative respectively.

  2. domum. See the note on ad domum, 3, 15.

  1. 1. referret. See the note on 19, 6.

  1. facerent, subjunctive by attraction. The verb of a clause dependent upon an infinitive is put in the subjunctive when the two clauses are closely connected in thought. We have already met this construction in the case of dependence upon a subjunctive; see the note on 20, 2.

gerere. Compare 30, 3. Such phrases as mós est may have as subject either an infinitive or a clause of result.

  1. verita. This participle is regularly rendered as present,

né. See the note on 29, 3.

  1. vestem. Notice that the position of this word helps to make it clear that it is the object of ínfécit as well as of dedit.

  2. suspicáns. This does not differ appreciably in force from suspicáta, 30, 22.

  1. exanimátus, 'beside himself.'

  1. succenderent. Notice the force of the prefix sub in this word and in subdidit below.

  2. inductus, 'moved.'


  1. 1. alter ... alter, 'one ... the other.' Remember that this word is used to denote one of two given persons or things. We have in this passage an instance of the chiastic order, in which variety and emphasis are gained by reversing the position of the words in the second of two similar expressions. Here the two names are brought together by this device.

  1. régní, objective genitive, i.e. a genitive used to denote the object of the feeling cupiditáte.

  1. ex amícís. Quídam, like únus, commonly has ex or and the ablative, instead of the partitive genitive.

  1. puerum mortuum esse, 'that the boy was dead,' literally 'the boy to be dead.' This is indirect for Puer mortuus est, 'The boy is dead.' Notice carefully what changes Latin makes in quoting such a statement indirectly, and what the changes are in English. We have already met two constructions of indirect discourse, the subjunctive in indirect questions, and the subjunctive in informal indirect discourse. By the latter is meant a subordinate clause which, though not forming part of a formal quotation, has the subjunctive to show that not the speaker or writer but some other person is responsible for the idea it expresses (see the notes on dedisset, 27, 25, and occídisset. 30, 3). In indirect discourse, then, a statement depending upon a verb of saying, thinking, knowing, perceiving, or the like has its verb in the infinitive with the subject in the accusative; a command or question has its verb in the subjunctive; and any clause modifying such a statement, command, or question has its verb in the subjunctive.

  1. 13. intellegerent. See the note on 14, 20.

  1. nesció quam fábulam, 'some story or other.' Notice that nesció with the interrogative pronoun is equivalent to an indefinite pronoun.

  1. óráculum. Read again the description beginning at the bottom of page 11.

  1. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

Post paucís annís, 'a few years later,' literally 'later by a few years.' Post is here an adverb, and paucís annís ablative of degree of difference. The expression is equivalent to post paucós annós.

  1. accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

factúrus, 'intending to make.' The future participle with a form of sum is used to express an intended or future action. This is called the active periphrastic conjugation.

  1. certam. See the note on 5, 13.

  2. Dié cónstitútá, ablative of time.

  1. á pueritiá. Compare á pueró, 9, 20.

  1. 2. tránseundó flúmine. See the note on suí ulcíscendí, 30, 16.

nesció quó. See the note on 33. 14.

  1. únó pede núdó, 'with one foot bare,' the ablative absolute. This construction consists of two parts, a noun, or pronoun corresponding to the subject of a clause, and a participle corresponding to the verb of a clause. A predicate noun or adjective may take the place of the participle. In the latter case the use of the participle 'being' will show the two parts in the relation of subject and predicate, 'one foot being bare.'

34.6. démónstrávisset, subjunctive because subordinate in indirect discourse. See the note on 33, 10. Pelias thought, Híc est homó quem óráculum démónstrávit.

  1. vellus aureum. Phrixus and his sister Helle were about to be put to death, when they were rescued by a ram with fleece of gold, who carried them off through the air. Helle fell from the ram's back into the strait that separates Europe and Asia, called after her the Hellespont, 'Helle's sea,' and known to us as the Dardanelles. Phrixus came safely to Colchis, and here he sacrificed the ram and gave the fleece to Aeetes. Read Mr. D.O.S. Lowell's Jason's Quest.

  1. ut ... potírétur. See the note on 27, 6.

hóc vellere. Potior takes the same construction as véscor, for which see the note on 16, 19.

  1. iter, accusative of extent.

  1. úsuí, dative of purpose. We say 'of use' or 'useful.'

  1. operí dative after the compound with prae. Notice that not all verbs compounded with prepositions govern the dative. Many compounds of ad, ante, com (for cum), in, inter, ob, post, prae, pró, sub, and super do have the dative, and some compounds of circum. You will find it profitable to keep a list of all such compound verbs governing the dative that you meet in your reading.

  2. né ... quidem, 'not ... even.' The word emphasized must stand between and quidem.

ad labórem. See the note on ad quiétem, 14, 1.

  1. Ad multitúdinem tránsportandam, used like ad labórem. The gerundive in this use is very common.

  2. quibus. The antecedent eae is not expressed. Notice that útor governs the same case as véscor and potior. Two other deponent verbs, not found in this book, take this construction, namely fruor, 'enjoy,' and fungor, 'perform.'

nostró marí, i.e. the Mediterranean.

cónsuévimus. See the note on cónsuéverat, 10, 9.

  1. 8. citharoedum. It was said that Orpheus made such sweet music on his golden harp that wild beasts, trees, and rocks followed him as he moved. By his playing he even prevailed upon Pluto to give back his dead wife Eurydice.

Théseum, a mythical hero, whose exploits resemble and rival those of Hercules. The most famous of them was the killing of the Minotaur. Theseus was the national hero of Athens.

Castorem, the famous tamer of horses and brother of Pollux, the boxer. Read Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome, The Battle of the Lake Regillus.

  1. quós, the subject of esse. Its antecedent is eós, line 11. The relative frequently precedes in Latin, but the antecedent must be translated first.

  1. Argonautae. Notice the composition of this word.

  1. déicerentur, part of the result clause.

  1. arbitrátí. See the note on 25, 27.

égredí. See the note on 22, 18.

  1. púgnátum est. See the note on 20 4.

  1. 5. Postrídié éius diéí, 'the next day,' more literally 'on the day following that day.' This idea may be expressed by postrídié alone, and the fuller expression is simply more formal.

  1. in ancorís, 'at anchor.'

  2. habérent. See the note on 34, 6.

  3. ex Argonautís. See the note on 33, 6.

  1. Quí, 'he.' See the note on quibus, 20, 1.

dum quaerit, 'while looking for.' The present indicative with dum is often to be translated by a present participle.

  1. vídissent. We say 'saw,' but Latin makes it plain that the seeing (and falling in love) came before the attempt to persuade.

eí. Keep a list of all intransitive verbs which are used with the dative.

  1. negáret. This verb is commonly used instead of dícó when a negative statement follows; when thus used, it should be translated by 'say' with the appropriate negative, here 'said that he would not.'

  1. 1. praebuisset, subjunctive in a subordinate clause of indirect discourse.

  1. supplicí. See the note on 7, 8.

  1. accubuerat. The Romans reclined at table, supporting themselves on the left arm and taking the food with the right hand. They naturally represented others as eating in the same way.

appositum, 'that had been placed before him.' See the note on exanimátum, 14, 4.

  1. Quó ... morerétur, 'and so it came to pass that Phineus was nearly dying of starvation,' literally 'that not much was wanting but that Phineus would die.' Ut ... abesset is a clause of result, the subject of factum est; quin ... morerétur is a form of subordinate clause with subjunctive verb used after certain negative expressions; famé is ablative of cause. Notice that famés has a fifth-declension ablative, but is otherwise of the third declension.

  1. Rés male sé habébat, 'the situation was desperate.' What is the literal meaning?

  1. opíniónem virtútis, 'reputation for bravery.'

  2. quín ferrent. Negative expressions of doubt are regularly followed by quín and the subjunctive.

  1. quantó in perículó. See the note on 11, 25.

suae rés, 'his affairs.' See the note on rés, 13, 8.

  1. repperissent. Phineus used the future perfect indicative.

  1. nihil, used adverbially.

  2. áera. See the note on 4, 11.

  1. Hóc factó, 'when this had been accomplished.' See the note on 34, 4. The ablative absolute is often used instead of a subordinate clause of time, cause, condition, or the like.

  1. 1. referret. See the note on 6, 16.

  1. eó cónsilió. See the note on 28, 1.

  2. né quis, 'that no one.' 'Negative clauses of purpose and negative clauses of result may be distinguished by the negative: né, né quís, etc., for purpose; ut nón, ut némó, etc., for result.

parvó interválló, 'a short distance apart,' ablative absolute. See the note on 34, 1.

  1. in medium spatium, 'between them.'

  1. quid faciendum esset, 'what was to be done.' The gerundive is used with sum to denote necessary action. This is called the passive periphrastic conjugation.

  2. sublátís ... solvit, 'weighed anchor and put to sea.' What is the literal translation? The ablative absolute is often best translated by a coördinate verb, and this requires a change of voice, for the lack of a perfect active participle in Latin is the reason for the use of the ablative absolute in such cases. If there were a perfect active participle, it would stand in the nominative, modifying the subject, as we have found the perfect participle of deponent verbs doing.

  1. réctá ... spatium, 'straight between them.'

  2. caudá tantum ámissá, 'having lost only its tail-feathers.' Notice that we change the voice, as in line 8, and that the use of the ablative absolute is resorted to here for the same reason as in that passage. Make sure at this point that you know three ways in which the ablative absolute may be translated, as in this passage, as in line 8, and as suggested in the note on 37, 27.

  1. concurrerent, 'could rush together.' See the note on possent, 27,

intellegentés, equivalent to cum intellegerent.

  1. dís, the usual form of the dative and ablative plural of deus, as of the nominative plural.

quórum, equivalent to cum eórum. A relative clause of cause, like a cum-clause of cause, has its verb in the subjunctive.

  1. negábat. See the note on 36, 16.

  1. 1. tráditúrum. In infinitives formed with participles esse is often omitted,

prius. See the note on 27, 25.

  1. Prímum. See the note on 12, 16.

  2. iungendí erant. See the note on 38, 7.

  1. reí bene gerendae, 'of accomplishing his mission.' What is the literal meaning?

  1. rem aegré ferébat, 'she was greatly distressed.' What is the literal meaning?

  1. Quae ... essent. See the note on 29, 23.

  2. medicínae, objective genitive.

  3. Mediá nocte. See the note on 9, 5.

ínsciente patre, 'without the knowledge of her father,' ablative absolute.

  1. vénit. See the note on 3, 13.

  1. quod ... cónfírmáret, a relative clause of purpose.

  1. essent, subjunctive in informal indirect discourse, or by attraction to oblineret.

  2. hominibus. See the note on 34, 24.

  3. mágnitúdine et víribus, ablative of specification.

  1. 2. nihil valére, 'prevailed not.'

  1. quá in ré. See the note on 11, 25.

  2. cónfécerit. See the note on 19, 22.

  1. quós. See the note on quíbus, 20, 1.

  2. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

  3. essent, subjunctive by attraction.

  4. quódam, 'some.'

  1. gígnerentur, 'should be born.' With dum, 'until,' the subjunctive is used of action anticipated, as with antequam (see the note on possent, 27, 20).

  1. omnibus agrí partibus. See the note on 18, 6.

  2. mírum in modum = míró modó.

  1. nesció cúr, 'for some reason.' See the note on 33, 14.

  1. núlló negótió, 'with no trouble,' 'without difficulty.'

  1. 3. quín tulisset. See the note on 37, 13.

  1. quam prímum, 'as soon as possible.' See the note on 23, 2.

  2. ávectúrum. See the note on tráditúrum, 39, 1.

  3. Postrídié éius diéí. See the note on 36, 5.

  1. locó. The antecedent is frequently thus repeated in the relative clause.

  1. quí ... essent, 'to guard the ship.' See the note on 13, 16.

  2. ipse. See the note on 21, 19.

  1. quídam. This word may sometimes be rendered by the indefinite article.

  2. démónstrávimus. See the note on nárrávimus, 14, 17.

  1. 5. dormit. See the note on fugit, 4, 25.

  1. aliquí. Learn from the vocabulary the difference between aliquís and aliquí.

mátúrandum sibi, 'they ought to hasten,' more literally 'haste ought to be made by them'; mátúrandum (esse) is the impersonal passive, and sibi the so-called dative of the agent. With the gerundive the person who has the thing to do is regularly expressed in the dative.

  1. mírátí. See the note on 25, 27.

  1. dís. See the note on 38, 17.

  2. événisset. See the note on accépissent, 26, 21.

  1. vigiliá. The Romans divided the day from sunrise to sunset into twelve hours (hórae), the night from sunset to sunrise into four watches (vigiliae).

  2. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

  3. inimícó animó, ablative of description.

  1. 2. hóc dolóre, 'this anger,' i.e. 'anger at this.'

Návem longam, 'war-galley,' 'man-of-war.' The adjective contrasts the shape of the man-of-war with that of the merchantman.

  1. fugientís, used as a noun, 'the fugitives.'

  1. quá, ablative of means.

  2. quá, 'as,' but in the same construction as eádem celeritáte.

  3. Quo ... caperentur. See the note on 37, 7.

  4. neque ... posset, 'for the distance between them was not greater than a javelin could be thrown.' What is the literal translation? The clause quó ... posset denotes result; the distance was not so great that a javelin could not be thrown from one ship to the other.

  1. vídisset. See the note on 36, 15.

  1. fugiéns, 'when she fled.' See the note on fessus, 23, 15.

  1. fílí. See the note on 7, 8.

  2. Neque ... fefellit, 'and Medea was not mistaken.' What is the literal meaning?

  3. ubi prímum, 'as soon as,' literally 'when first.'

  1. prius, not to be rendered until quam is reached. The two words together mean 'before,' more literally 'earlier than,' 'sooner than,' They are sometimes written together (priusquam).

  2. nihil ... esse, 'that it would be of no advantage to him.'

  1. 5. pollicitus erat. Verbs of promising do not usually take in Latin the simple present infinitive, as in English, but the construction of indirect discourse.

  1. mihi. The dative of reference is often used in Latin where we should use a possessive in English. Translate here as if the word were meus, modifying diés.

  2. Liceat mihi, 'permit me,' literally 'let it be permitted to me.' Commands and entreaties in the third person are regularly expressed in the subjunctive.

dum vívam, 'so long as I live.' The verb with dum 'so long as' is not restricted to the present, as with dum 'while,' but any tense of the indicative may be used. We have here the future indicative, or the present subjunctive by attraction.

  1. tú. The nominative of the personal pronouns is commonly expressed only when emphatic. Here the use of the pronoun makes the promise more positive.

  1. rem aegré tulit, 'was vexed.' Compare 39, 10.

  1. Vultisne, the verb vultis and the enclitic -ne, which is used to introduce a question, and is incapable of translation. Num (line 21) introduces a question to which a negative answer is expected, and is likewise not to be translated, except in so far as its effect is reproduced by the form of the question or the tone of incredulity with which the words are spoken.

  1. effervésceret. See the note on 40, 16.

  1. 3. stupentés, 'in amazement.'

  1. Vós. See the note on 44, 12. Vós and ego in the next sentence are contrasted.

  1. Quod ubi. See the note on 28, 8.

  1. necávérunt. See the note on interfécit, 13, 18.

  1. quíbus. For the case see the note on quíbus, 34, 27.

  1. ré vérá, 'really.'

  1. aegré tulérunt, 'were indignant at.' Compare 39, 10, and 44, 15.

  1. Creontí. See the note on cui erant, 13, 5.

  1. núntium, 'a notice of divorce.'

  2. dúceret. See the note on dúxit, 6, 18.

  1. ultúram. See the note on 39, 1.

  1. 1. Vestem. Compare the story of the death of Hercules, pp. 30, 31.

  1. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

induisset, subjunctive by attraction.

  1. nihil malí. See the note on 22, 26.

  1. itaque, not the adverb itaque, but the adverb ita and the enclitic conjunction -que.

áera. See the note on 4, 11.

  1. in eam partem, 'to that side.'


  1. 4. ínsidiás. This refers to the story of the wooden horse.

  1. quem, subject of excógitásse. The English idiom is 'who, some say, devised.' Notice that excógitásse is contracted from excógitávisse.

  2. quó, ablative of means.

  1. aliae ... partís, 'some in one direction and some in another,' but Latin compresses this into the one clause 'others in other directions.'

  2. quá. See the note on 43, 6.

  1. quibusdam, dative with obviam factí, 'having fallen in with,' 'having met.'

  2. Accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

  1. 2. gustássent, contracted from gustávissent.

patriae et sociórum. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take the genitive or the accusative, but oblívíscor prefers the former.

  1. cibó. See the note on 16, 19.

  2. hórá septimá. See the note on 42, 23.

  1. docuérunt. See the note on 4, 26.

  1. 6. tantum, the adverb.

  1. sé, 'they,' i.e. himself and his companions.

praedandí causá, 'to steal.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by causá with the genitive of the gerund or gerundive. What other ways of expressing purpose have you met in your reading?

  1. á Tróiá. The preposition is sometimes used with names of towns, with the meaning 'from the direction of' or 'from the neighborhood of.'

  2. esse. It will help you to understand indirect discourse if you will try to discover what words would be used to express the idea in the direct form. Here, for instance, the exact words of Ulysses would have been in Latin: _Neque mercátórés sumus neque praedandí causá vénimus; sed á Tróiá redeuntés ví tempestátum á réctó cursú dépulsí sumus_.

  1. ubi ... essent. The question of Polyphemus was _Ubi est návis quá vectí estis_?

sibi ... esse, 'that he must be exceedingly careful.' See the note on mátúrandum sibi, 42, 12.

  1. in ... esse, 'had been driven on the rocks and entirely dashed to pieces.' See the note on írá ... interfécit, 18, 4.

  1. 1. membrís eórum dívulsís, 'tearing them limb from limb.'

  1. né ... quidem. See the note on 34, 25.

  1. tam. Notice that the force of a second demonstrative word is lost in the English rendering. So híc tantus vir, 'this great man,' etc.

  2. humí. See the note on 30, 16.

próstrátus, 'throwing himself down.' See the note on continébantur, 20, 26.

  1. reí gerendae, 'for action.' Compare 39, 8.

  2. in eó ... tránsfígeret, 'was on the point of transfixing.' The clause of result ut ... tránsfígeret is explanatory of in eó.

  1. nihil sibi prófutúrum. See the note on 43, 25.

  1. hóc cónátú. See the note on 13, 11.

  2. núllá ... oblátá, 'since no hope of safety presented itself.' See the note on continébantur, 20, 26.

  1. et. See the note on 28, 18.

  1. látúri essent, 'would bring,' more literally 'were going to bring.' Notice that in subjunctive constructions the periphrastic form is necessary to express future action clearly, since the subjunctive has no future.

  1. quod, object of the implied fécerat.

  1. 14. quó. See the note on 43, 7.

  1. id ... salútí, 'and this was his salvation,' literally 'that which was for safety to him.' For the datives see the note on 13, 16.

  1. tertium, the adverb.

  1. Néminem. Why is the accusative used?

  1. inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

  2. quam facultátem, for facultátem quam. The antecedent is often thus attracted into the relative clause,

né omittámus, 'let us not neglect,' the hortatory subjunctive.

  1. reí gerendae. See the note on 52, 8.

  1. 1. extrémum pálum, 'the end of the stake.' Other adjectives denoting a part of the object named by the noun they modify are medius, 'the middle of'; céterus, 'the rest of'; reliquus, 'the rest of'; prímus, 'the first of'; summus, 'the top of'; ímus, 'the bottom of.'

  1. dum errat, 'wandering.'

  1. pecus. Is this pecus, pecoris, or pecus, pecudis? See the note on pecora, 20, 26.

  2. vénerat. We say 'came,' but the Latin by the use of the pluperfect denotes that this action preceded that of tráctábat.

  1. 1. quás. See the note on quibus, 20, 1.

inter sé. Compare 21, 20.

  1. fore, 'would happen.'

  1. aliquod. Compare 42, 12, and the note.

  2. id ... erat, 'as was indeed the case.'

  3. auxiliandí causá. See the note on 51, 23.

  1. correptum coniécit, 'seized and threw.'

  2. nón ... submergerentur. See the note on 37, 7.

  1. 4-6. These verses and those on p. 57 and p. 59 are quoted from Vergil's Aeneid.

  1. vinclís, for vinculís.

  1. vírís. Let the quantity of the first i tell you from what nominative this word comes.

  1. sibi proficíscendum. See the note on mátúrandum sibi, 42, 12.

  1. iam profectúró, 'as he was now about to set out.'

  1. návigantí, 'to one sailing.'

  1. mírábantur, 'had been wondering.' With iam dúdum and similar expressions the imperfect denotes action begun some time before and still going on at the given past time. This is similar to the use of the present already commented on (see the note on es, 4, 1).

  1. céláta, plural because of the plural expression aurum et argentum.

  1. 1. ventí, subject of ruunt and perflant.

  1. velut ágmine factó, 'as if formed in column.'

  2. data. Est is omitted.

  1. próiécissent. See the note on accépissent, 26, 21.

  1. in terram égrediendum esse, 'that a landing must be made.'

  1. quam, an adverb modifying crúdélí.

  2. essent, informal indirect discourse or subjunctive by attraction.

  3. vellet, subjunctive of characteristic. This name is given to the subjunctive when used in relative clauses to define or restrict an indefinite or general antecedent. So here it is not 'no one was found,' but 'no one willing to undertake this task was found.'

  4. déducta est, 'came.'

  1. praeesset, subjunctive of purpose.

  1. événit. This verb takes the same construction as accidit, 30, 1.

  1. 1. nihil. See the note on 37, 22.

  1. mortí. Compare 49, 26.

  1. aliquantum itineris, 'some distance on the journey.' The two words are accusative of extent of space and partitive genitive respectively.

  1. sibi, 'for them,' dative of reference.

  2. forís. This is translated like forás above, but the former was originally locative and is therefore used with verbs of rest; the latter, accusative of place whither and therefore used with verbs of motion.

  1. accubuérunt. See the note on 37, 6.

  1. perturbátus, used as a predicate adjective, 'agitated.'

  1. correptó. See the note on 38, 8.

  1. 1. quid. See the note on quis, 30, 3.

gravius, 'serious.'

eí. The direct form of these two speeches would be: Sí quid gravius tibi acciderit, omnium salús in summó discrímine erit; and _Néminem invítum mécum addúcam; tibi licet, sí mávís, in náví manére; ego ipse sine úlló praesidió rem suscipiam. Notice that ego is not used to represent of line 2, but is used for of line 4 for the sake of the contrast with tibi.

  1. núlló. Instead of the genitive and ablative of némó, núllíus and núlló are regularly used.

  2. Alíquantum itinerís. See the note on 58, 5.

  1. in eó ... intráret. See the note on 52, 9.

  2. eí. Compare 49, 26, and 58, 2.

  1. Circés, a Greek form of the genitive.

  1. Num. See the note on 44, 20. Nónne (line 14) is used to introduce a question to which an affirmative answer is expected.

  1. núllís. See the note on 24, 3.

  1. tetigerit. See the note on 30, 20.

tú ... faciás, 'see that you draw your sword and make an attack upon her.'

  1. vísús, 'sight,' The use of the plural is poetic.

  2. tenuem ... auram. The order of the words here is poetic.

  1. 1. atque, 'as.' After adjectives and adverbs denoting likeness and unlikeness, this use of atque is regular.

  1. dépulsa est. See the note on 4, 26.

  2. sibi. See the note on 58, 11.

  1. ut ... erat, 'as he had been instructed,' more literally 'as had been enjoined upon him.' An intransitive verb must be used impersonally in the passive, for it is the direct object of the active voice that becomes the subject of the passive. If the intransitive verb takes a dative in the active, this dative is kept in the passive. Notice that the corresponding English verbs are transitive, and that the dative may therefore be rendered as the object in the active construction and as the subject in the passive.

  1. sénsisset. See the note on vídissent, 36, 15.

  2. sibi vítam adimeret, 'take her life.' The dative of reference is thus used after some compound verbs to name the person from whom a thing is taken. This construction is sometimes called the dative of separation.

  3. timóre perterritam. See the note on 14, 11.

  1. eí pedés, 'his feet.' See the note on 44, 10.

  2. imperásset, contracted from imperávisset.

  3. in átrium. See the note on 7, 3.

  1. sunt, goes with reductí.

  1. reliquís Graecís, indirect object of díceret.

  2. Circaeam. Notice that this use of the adjective instead of the genitive often cannot be imitated in the English rendering, but must be translated by the possessive case or a prepositional phrase.

  1. 8. eí persuásum sit, 'he was persuaded.' See the note on 60, 11. The clause ut ... manéret is the subject of persuásum sit; if the latter were active, the clause would be its object. For the tense of persuásum sit see the note on 19, 22.

  1. cónsúmpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

patriae, objective genitive, to be rendered, as often, with 'for.'

  1. úsuí. See the note on 34, 20.

  1. antequam perveníret. We say 'before he could come.' See the note on possent, 27, 20.

  2. hóc locó. See the note on 24, 2.

longum est. We say '_would_ be tedious' or '_would_ take too long.'



abl. = ablative.

acc. = accusative.

act. = active.

adj. = adjective.

adv. = adverb.

comp. = comparative.

conj. = conjunction.

dat. = dative.

dem. = demonstrative.

  1. = feminine. freq. = frequentative. gen. = genitive. ger. = gerundive. impers. = impersonal. indecl. = indeclinable. indef. = indefinite. infin. = infinitive. interrog. = interrogative. loc. = locative.
  1. = masculine.
  2. = neuter. part. = participle. pass. = passive. perf. = perfect. pers. = personal. plur. = plural. prep. = preposition. pron. = pronoun or pronominal. rel. = relative. sing. = singular. superl. = superlative.

The hyphen in initial words indicates the composition of the words.


á or ab (the former never used before words beginning with a

    vowel or h), prep. with abl., away from, from; of; by. abditus, -a, -um [part of abdó], hidden, concealed.

ab-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put away, hide.
ab-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead or take away.
ab-eó, -íre, -ií, -itúrus, go away, depart.
abició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ab + iació], throw away.
abripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [ab + rapió], snatch away, carry off.
abscídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [abs = ab + caedó], cut away or off.

ab-scindó, -scindere, -scidí, -scissus, tear away or off. ab-sum, abesse, áfuí, áfutúrus, be away, be absent, be distant; be

    wanting. ab-súmó, -súmere, -súmpsí, -súmptus, take away, consume, destroy. Absyrtus, -í, m., Absyrtus.
ac, see atque.
Acastus, -í, m., Acastus.
accendó, -cendere, -cendí, -cénsus, kindle, light. accidó, -cidere, -cidí [ad + cadó], fall to or upon; befall, happen. accipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [ad + capió], take to oneself, receive,

    accept; hear; suffer. accumbó, -cumbere, -cubuí, -cubitus, lie down (at table). accurró, -currere, -currí, -cursus [ad + curró], run to, come up.

ácer, ácris, ácre, sharp, shrill.
aciés, -éí, f., line of battle.
Acrisius, -í, m., Acrisius.
ácriter [ácer], adv., sharply, fiercely.
ad, prep. with acc., to, toward; at, near; for.
ad-amó, -amáre, -amáví, -amátus, feel love for, fall in love with.
ad-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead to, bring, take; induce,

    influence. ad-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go to, approach. ad-feró, adferre, attulí, adlátus, bear to, bring. adfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [ad + fació], do to, move, affect;

    visit, afflict. ad-flígó, -flígere, -flíxi, -flíctus, dash to, shatter. adhibeó, -hibére, -hibuí, -hibitus [ad + habeó], hold to, employ, show. ad-húc, adv., to this point, up to this time, yet, still. adició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ad + iació], throw to, throw, hurl. adimó, -imere, -émí, -émptus [ad + emó], take to oneself, take away. aditus, -ús [adeó], m., approach, entrance. ad-iungo, -iungere, -iúnxí, -iúnctus, join to, join.

ad-ligó, -ligáre, -ligáví, -ligátus, bind to, bind.
Adméta, -ae, f., Admeta.
ad-míror, -mírárí, -mírátus, wonder at, admire.
ad-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send to, admit; allow.
ad-stó, -stáre, -stití, stand at or near.
aduléscéns, -entis, m., youth, young man.
aduléscentia, -ae [aduléscéns], f., youth.
ad-úró, -úrere, -ússí, -ústus, set fire to, burn, scorch, sear.
ad-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come to or _toward, approach,
adventus, -ús [advenió], m., approach, arrival.
Aeacus, -í, m., Aeacus.
aedificó, -áre, -áví, -átus [aedis + fació], make a building, build.
aedis, -is, f., sing. temple, plur. house.
Aeétés, -ae, m., Aeetes.
aegré [aeger, sick], adv., ill, with difficulty.
Aegyptií,-órum, m. pl., Egyptians.
aéneus, -a, -um [aes], of copper or bronze.
Aeolia, -ae [Aeolus], f., Aeolia.
Aeolus, -í, m., Aeolus.
áér, áeris, m., air.
aes, aeris, n., copper, bronze.
Aeson, -onis, m., Aeson.
aestás, -tátis, f., summer.
aetás, -tátis, f., age.
Aethiopés, -um, m. plur., Ethiopians.
Aetna, -ae, f., Etna.
ager, agri, m., field, land.
ágmen, -minis [ago], n., band, column.
ágnóscó, -gnóscere, -gnóví, -gnitus [ad + (g)nóscó, _come to know],

agó, agere, égí, áctus, drive; do; pass, lead; grátiás agere, see


ala, -ae, f., wing.
albus, -a, -um, white.
Alcména, -ae, f., Alcmena.
aliénus, -a, -um [alius], belonging to another, out of place.
ali-quandó, adv., at some time or other; finally, at length.
ali-quantum, -quantí, n., somewhat.
ali-quí, -qua, -quod, indef. pron. adj., some, any.
ali-quis, -quid, indef. pron., _someone, any one, something, anything,
some, any_.
aliter [alius], adv., in another way, otherwise, differently.
alius, -a, -ud, another, other; alií ... alií, _some ... others.
aló, -ere, -uí, -tus, nourish.
Alpés, -ium, f. plur., Alps.
alter, -era, -erum, one or the other (of two); another, second.
altus, -a, -um [part, of aló], high, deep; altum, -í, n., the deep.
Amázonés,-um, f. plur.,Amazons.
ámentia, -ae [á + méns, mind], f., madness.
amícus, -í, m., friend.
á-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send away, lose.
amó, -áre, -áví, -átus, love.
amor, -óris [amó], m., love.
á-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, move away.
amphora, -ae, f., jar, bottle.
an, conj., or (in questions).
ancora, -ae, f., anchor; in ancorís, at anchor.
Andromeda, -ae, f., Andromeda.
anguis, -is, m. and f., serpent, snake.
anima, -ae, f., breath, soul, life.

animadvertó, -vertere, -vertí, -versus [animus + ad-vertó], turn the

    mind to, observe.

animus, -í, m., mind; heart; spirit, courage.
annus, -í, m., year.
ante, prep, with acc. and adv., before.
anteá [ante], adv., before.
antecelló, -cellere, surpass, excel.
ante-quam, conj., before than, sooner than, before.
antíquus, -a, -um, ancient.
antrum, -í, n., cave.
ánxius, -a, -um, anxious.
aper, aprí, m., wild boar.
aperió, -íre, -uí, -tus, open.
apertus, -a, -um [part, of aperió], open.
Apollo, -inis, m., Apollo.
appelló, -pelláre, -pelláví, -pellátus, call, name.
appelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus [ad + pelló], drive to, bring to;
with or without návem, put in.
appetó, -petere, -petíví, -petítus [ad + petó], draw near.

appónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [ad + pónó], put to or near, set

    before, serve. appropinquó, -propinquáre, -propinquáví, -propinquátus [ad + propinquó],

    approach to, approach. apud, prep, with acc., among, with.

aqua, -ae, f., water.
ára, -ae, f., altar.
arbitror, -árí, -átus, consider, think, judge.
arbor, -oris, f., tree.
arca, -ae, f., chest, box, ark.
Arcadia,-ae, f., Arcadia.
arcessó, -ere, -íví, -ítus, call, summon, fetch.
arcus, -ús, m., bow.
árdeó, árdére, ársí, ársus, be on fire, burn.
argentum, -í, n., silver.
Argó, Argus, f., the Argo.
Argolicus, -a, -um, of Argolis (the district of Greece in which Tiryns

    was situated), Argolic. Argonautae, -árum [Argó + nauta], m. plur., Argonauts.

Argus, -í, m., Argus.
ariés, -etis, m., ram.
arma, -órum, n. plur., arms, weapons.
armátus, -a, -um [part, of armó], armed.
armó, -áre, -ávi, -átus [arma], arm, equip.
aró, -áre, -áví, -átus, plow.
ars, artis, f., art.
ascendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [ad + scandó], _climb to, ascend,

aspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [ad + speció], look at or on,

    behold. at, conj., but.

Athénae, -árum, f. plur., Athens.
Atlás, -antis, m., Atlas.
atque or ac (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel
or h), conj., and; after words of comparison, as, than.
átrium, -í, n., hall.
attingó, -tingere, -tigí, -táctus [ad + tango], touch at.
audácia, -ae [audáx, bold], f., boldness, audacity.
audeó, audére, ausus sum, dare.
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítus, hear; listen or attend to.
auferó, auferre, abstulí, ablátus [ab + feró], bear away, carry off.
aufugió, -fugere, -fúgí [ab + fugió], flee or run away.
Augéás, -ae, m., Augeas.
aura, -ae, f., air, breeze.
aureus, -a, -um [aurum], of gold, golden.
auris, -is, f., ear.
aurum, -í, n., gold.
aut, conj., or; aut ... aut, either ... or.
autem, conj., moreover; but, however; now.
auxilior, -ári, -átus [auxilium], help.
auxilium, -í, n., help, aid.
á-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, carry away.
avis, -is, f., bird.
á-voló, -voláre, -voláví, -volátúrus, fly away.
avus, -í, m., grandfather.


baculum, -í, n., stick, wand.
balteus, -í, m.., belt, girdle.
barbarus, -a, -um, barbarian.
beátus, -a, -um, happy, blessed.
bellicósus, -a, -um [bellum], war-like.
bellum, -í, n., war.
bélua, -ae, f., beast, monster.
bene [bonus], adv., well; successfully.
beneficium, -í [bene + fació], n., _well-doing, kindness, service,
benígné [benígnus, kind], adv., kindly.
benígnitás, -tátis [benígnus, kind], f., kindness.
bibó, bibere, bibí, drink.
biceps, -cipitis [bi- + caput], adj., two-headed.
bonus, -a, -um, good.
bós, bovis, gen. plur. boum, dat. and abl. plur. bóbus, m. and f., _ox,
bull, cow_.
bracchium, -í, n., arm.
brevis, -e, short.
Búsíris, -idis, m., Busiris.


Cácus, -í, m., Cacus.
cadáver, -eris, n., dead body, corpse, carcass. cadó, cadere, cecidí, cásúrus, fall.

caecus, -a, -um, blind.
caedés, -is [caedó, cut], f., cutting down, killing, slaughter.
caelum, -í, n., heaven, sky.
Calais, -is, m., Calais.
calamitás, -tátis, f., misfortune, calamity, disaster.
calceus, -í, m., shoe.
calefació, -facere, -fécí, -factus [caleó, be hot + fació], make hot.
calor, -óris [caleó, be hot], m., heat.
campus, -í, m., plain, field.
cancer, cancrí, m., crab.
canis, -is, m. and f., dog.
cantó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of canó, sing], sing.
cantus, -ús [canó, sing], m., singing, song.
capió, capere, cépí, captus, _take, catch, seize; receive, suffer;
captívus, -a, -um [capió], captive.
caput, capitis, n., head.
carcer, -eris, m., prison.
carmen, -minis [canó, sing], n., song, charm.
caró, carnis, f., flesh.
carpó, -ere, -sí, -tus, pluck.
Castor, -oris, m., Castor.
castra, -órum, n. plur., camp.
cású [abl. of cásus], adv., by chance, accidentally.
cásus, -ús [cadó], m., fall; chance, accident.
caténa, -ae, f., chain.
cauda, -ae, f., tail.
causa, -ae, f., cause, reason; abl. causá, for the sake of.
caveó, cavére, cáví, cautus, _beware, take care; be on one's guard

    against, beware of. celeber, celebris, celebre, frequented; renowned, celebrated. celeritás, -tátis [celer, swift], f., swiftness, quickness, speed.

celeriter [celer, swift], adv., swiftly, quickly.
céló, -áre, -áví, -átus, hide, conceal.
céna, -ae, f., dinner.
cénáculum, -í [céna], n., dining-room.
Cénaeum, -í, n., Cenaeum (a promontory of Euboea).
cénó, -áre, -áví, -átus [céna], dine.
cénseó, cénsére, cénsuí, cénsus, think, believe, consider.
centaurus, -í, m., centaur.
centum, indecl. adj., one hundred.
Cépheus, -í, m., Cepheus.
Cerberus, -í, m., Cerberus.
Ceres, Cereris, f., Ceres.
cernó, cernere, créví, certus or crétus, discern, perceive, make out.
certámen, -minis [certó, strive], n., struggle, contest.

certó [abl. of certus], adv., with certainty, for certain, certainly. certus, -a, -um [part. of cernó], determined, fixed, certain; certiórem

    facere, to make more certain, inform. cervus, -í, m., stag.
céterí, -ae, -a, plur. adj., the other, the remaining, the rest of.

Charón, -ontis, m., Charon.
cibus, -í, m., food.
cingó, cingere, cinxí, cinctus, surround, gird.
Circé, -és, f., Circe.
Circaeus, -a, -um [Circé], of Circe.
circiter, prep. with acc. and adv., about.
circum, prep. with acc., around.
circum-dó, -dare, -dedí, -datus, put around, surround.

circum-stó, -stáre, -stetí, stand around. citerior, -ius [comp. from citrá, on this side of], adj., on this

    side, hither. cithara, -ae, f., cithara, lute, lyre. citharoedus, -í [cithara], m., citharoedus (one who sings to the

    accompaniment of the cithara). cívis, -is, m. and f., citizen, fellow-citizen, subject.

cívitás, -tátis [cívis], f., state.
clámitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of clámó, call out], call out.
clamor, -óris [clámó, call out], m., shout, cry.
cláva, -ae, f., club.
clémentia, -ae [cléméns, merciful], f., mercy, kindness.
coepí, coepisse, coeptus (used in tenses of completed action), _have
begun, began_.

cógitó, -áre, -áví, -átus, consider, think over. cógnóscó, -gnóscere, -gnóví, -gnitus [com- + (g)nóscó, come to know],

find out, learn; in tenses of completed action, have found out, know.

cógó, cógere, coégí, coáctus [co- + agó], drive together, collect;

    compel. co-hortor, -hortárí, -hortátus, encourage, exhort.

Colchí, -órum, m. plur., Colchians.
Colchis, -idis, f., Colchis.
collum, -í, n., neck.
coló, colere, coluí, cultus, till, cultivate; inhabit; worship.
color, -óris, m., color.
columba, -ae, f., pigeon, dove.
columna, -ae, f., column, pillar.
comes, -itis [com- + eó], m. and f., companion.
commeátus, -ús, m., supplies, provisions.
com-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send together; commit, intrust;
expose_; proelium committere, to join battle.
com-moror, -morárí, -morátus, tarry, linger, delay, stay.
com-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, move, rouse; disturb.
com-mútátió, -tiónis, f., change.
com-paró, -paráre, -paráví, -parátus, prepare, collect.
com-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, drive together, drive.
complector, -plectí, -plexus, embrace.
com-pleó, -plére, -pléví, -plétus, fill full, fill up.

com-plúrés, -plúra, plur. adj., several, many. com-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, carry or bring together,

    collect. com-prehendó, -prehendere, -prehendí, -prehénsus, seize, catch. comprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [com- + premó], press together,

    squeeze, compress.

cónátus, -ús [cónor], m., attempt, effort.
con-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, grant, yield.
con-curró, -currere, -currí, -cursus, run, rush, or dash together.
con-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put together, found; store away.
cón-feró, cónferre, contulí, conlátus, bring together; grant, confer;

    sé cónferre, to betake oneself, make one's way. cónfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [com- + fació], make or do

    completely, complete, finish, accomplish, make; wear out. cón-fírmó, -fírmáre, -fírmáví, -fírmátus, strengthen, establish;

    declare, assert. cón-flígó, -flígere, -flíxí, -flíctus, dash together. conició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [com- + iació], throw together; throw,

    cast, hurl. con-iungó, -iungere, -iúnxí, -iúnctus, join together, join. coniúnx, coniugis [coniungó], m. and f., spouse, husband, wife. conligó, -ligere, -légí, -léctus [com- + legó], gather together,

    collect. con-locó, -locáre, -locáví, -locátus, place together, put, place. conloquium, -í [conloquor, talk together], n., conversation. cónor, -árí, -átus, try, attempt. cónscendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [com- + scandó, climb],

    climb; návem cónscendere, to climb the ship, go on board, embark. cónsénsus, -ús [cónsentió, agree], m., agreement, consent. cón-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow up, follow; overtake. cón-servó, -serváre, -serváví, -servátus, preserve, keep. cón-sídó, -sídere, -sédí, -sessus, sit down. cónsilium, -í [cónsuló], n., advice; plan, design, purpose; prudence. cón-sistó, -sistere, -stití, -stitus, station oneself, take one's stand;

    consist. cónspectus, -ús [cónspició], m., sight. cónspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [com- + speció, look], behold,

    perceive, see. cónstituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [com- + statuó], set together

    or up; appoint; determine. cón-stó, -stáre, -stití, -státúrus, stand together, agree; consist; cónstat, it is agreed, is well known. cón-suéscó, -suéscere, -suéví, -suétus, become accustomed; in tenses of

    completed action, have become accustomed, be accustomed or wont. cónsuló, -ere, -uí, -tus, consult. cón-súmó, -súmere, -súmpsí, -súmptus, take completely, use up, consume,

    spend. con-tegó, -tegere, -téxí, -téctus, cover. con-tendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus, stretch, hasten. continéns, -entis [contineó], f., 'mainland, continent. contineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [com- + teneó], hold together, keep

    within, shut up in; bound. continuus, -a, -um [contineó], continuous, successive. contrá, prep, with acc., against, contrary to. contróversia, -ae, f., quarrel, dispute, debate. con-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come together, assemble. con-vertó, -vertere, -vertí, -versus, turn round, turn, change; in

    fugam convertere, to put to flight. con-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, call together, summon, assemble.

co-orior, -orírí, -ortus, arise.
cópia, -ae, f., supply, abundance; plur., forces, troops.
Corinthus, -í, m., Corinth.
corium, -í, n., hide, leather.
cornú, -ús, n., horn.
corpus, corporis, n., body.
corripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [com- + rapió], _seize, snatch,
snatch up_.
cottídié, adv., daily, every day.
crédibilis, -e [crédó], credible.
crédó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, believe.
creó, -áre, -áví, -átus, elect, appoint.
Creón, -ontis, m., Creon.
crepítus, -ús [crepó, rattle], m., rattle, clatter.
crepundia, -órum [crepó, rattle], n. plur., rattle.
Créta, -ae, f., Crete.
cruciátus, -ús [crució, torture], m., torture.
crúdélis, -e, cruel.
crús, crúris, n., leg.
cubiculum, -í [cubó], n., bedroom.
cubó, -áre, -uí, lie down, lie, recline.
culter, cultrí, m., knife.
cum, prep, with abl., with.
cum, conj., when, while, after; since; although.
cúnae, -arum, f. plur., cradle.
cupiditás, -tátis [cupidus], f., desire, longing, eagerness.
cupidus, -a, -um [cupió], desirous, eager.
cupió, -ere, -íví, -ítus, desire, long for, wish.
cúr, adv., why.
curró, currere, cucurrí, cursus, run.
cursus, -ús, m., chariot.
cursus, -ús [curró], m., running, course.
custódió, -íre, -íví, -ítus [custós, guard], guard.
Cyclóps, -is, m., Cyclops
Cyzicus, -í, f., Cyzicus.


damnum, -í, n., harm, injury.
Danaé, -és, f., Danae.
dé, prep, with abl., down from, from, out of; about, concerning,
débeó, -ére, -uí, -itus [dé+ habeó], owe; with infin., ought.
débitus, -a, -um [part, of débeó], owed, due.
dé-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go away, depart.
decem, indecl. adj., ten.
décidó, -cidere, -cidí [dé + cadó], fall down.
decimus, -a, -um [decem], tenth.
décipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [dé + capió], catch, deceive.
decoró, -áre, -áví, -átus [decus, adornment], adorn, distinguish.
dé-curró, -currere, -cucurrí, -cursus, run down.
dé-decus, -decoris, n., dishonor, disgrace.
dé-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, give away or up.
dé-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead down or away, bring; návem
dédúcere, to draw down or launch a ship.
dé-fendó, -fendere, -fendí, -fénsus, ward off; defend.
dé-feró, -ferre, -tulí, -látus, bear or carry away or off.
dé-fessus, -a, -um, worn out, exhausted.
défició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [dé + fació], fail.
Déianíra, -ae, f., Dejanira.
déició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [dé + iació], _throw down, cast, drive out
of one's course_.
deinde, adv., then, next.
dé-lábor, -lábí, -lapsus, slip or fall down.
déligó, -ligere, -légí, -léctus [dé + legó], _choose out, choose,
Delphí, -órum, m. plur., Delphi.

Delphicus, -a, -um [Delphí], of Delphi, Delphic, Delphian. démissus, -a, -um [part. of démittó], downcast, dejected. dé-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send down, let fall; animós

    démittere, to lose courage. dé-mónstró, -mónstráre, -mónstráví, -mónstrátus, point out, show; make


démum, adv., at last.
dénique, adv., lastly, finally.
déns, dentis, m., tooth.
dénsus, -a, -um, thick.
dé-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, drive off or away, drive.
dé-plóró, -plóráre, -plóráví, -plórátus, lament.

dé-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put down, deposit; lay aside, give

    up; é memoriá dépónere, to forget. déripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [dé + rapió], snatch away, tear off,

    pull down. déscendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [dé + scandó], climb down,


dé-seró, -serere, -seruí, -sertus, desert.
désertus, -a, -um [part, of déseró], deserted.
désíderium, -í [désíderó, desire], n., desire, longing.
désilió, -silíre, -siluí, -sultus [dé + salió], leap down.
dé-sistó, -sistere, -stití, -stitus, _set down; leave off, desist, cease,

    stop. dé-spéró, -spéráre, -spéráví, -spérátus, despair. dé-super, adv., down from above. dé-terreó, -terrére, -terruí, -territus, frighten off, deter.

dé-trahó, -trahere, -tráxí, -tráctus, draw or pull off.
deus, -í, m., god.
dé-vertó, -vertere, -vertí, turn away or aside.
dé-voró, -voráre, -voráví, -vorátus, swallow down, swallow, devour.
dexter, -tra, -trum, right.

dextra, -ae [dexter], f., right hand (manus understood). Diána, -ae, f., Diana.
dícó, dícere, díxí, dictus, say, speak; diem dícere, to appoint or

    set a day. diés, -éí, m. and f., day. difficilis, -e [dis- + facilis], not easy, difficult. difficultas, -tátis [difficilis], f., difficulty. diffundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus [dis- + fundó], pour forth, spread or

    shed abroad, diffuse. díligenter [díligéns, careful], adv., carefully, diligently. díligentia, -ae [díligéns, careful], f., care, diligence, industry. dí-lúcéscó, -lúcéscere, -lúxí, grow light, dawn. dílúcidé [dílúcidus, distinct], adv., distinctly, plainly. dí-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send different ways, send forth or

    away, despatch; let slip, lose.

Diomédés, -is, m., Diomedes.
dírus, -a, -um, dreadful.
dis-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go apart, withdraw, depart.
discó, discere, didicí, learn.
discrímen, -críminis, n., crisis, peril, danger.

discus, -í, m., discus, quoit.
disició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [dis- + iació], throw apart, scatter. diú, adv., for a long time, a long time or while, long; comp. diútius, longer.
dí-velló, -vellere, -vellí, -vulsus, tear apart, rend asunder, tear in

    pieces. díversus, -a, -um [part. of díverto], turned different ways, opposite,

    contrary, different.

dívidó, -videre, -vísí, -vísus, divide, separate.
dó, dare, dedí, datus, give.
doceo, -ére, -uí, -tus, teach, explain.
dolor, -óris [doleó, be in pain], m., pain, grief; anger.
dolus, -í, m., trick, craft.
domina, -ae, f., mistress.
domus, -ús, f., house, home.
dónum, -í [do], n., gift.
dormió, -íre, -íví, sleep.
dracó, -ónis, m., dragon, serpent.
dubitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [dubius], doubt, hesitate.
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful, uncertain.
dúcó, dúcere, dúxí, ductus [dux], lead; make, dig; with or without in
mátrimónium, marry.
dúdum, adv., formerly, of old; iam dúdum, this long time.
dulcédó, -inis [dulcis], f., sweetness.
dulcis, -e, sweet.
dum, conj., while, as; as long as; until.
duo, -ae, -o, plur. adj., two.
duodecim [duo + decem], indecl. adj., twelve.

duo-dé-vígintí, indecl. adj., eighteen. dux, ducis, m. and f., leader, commander.


é, see ex.

ébrius, -a, -um, drunk.
é-dícó, -dícere, -díxí, -dictus, declare, proclaim, appoint.
é-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put forth, give out, utter.
é-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead out, draw.
effervéscó, -fervéscere, -ferbuí [ex + fervéscó], boil up or _over,

    boil. effició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [ex + fació], make or work out,

    accomplish, effect. effló, -fláre, -fláví, -flátus [ex + fló], breathe out. effugio, -fugere, -fúgí [ex + fugió], flee out or away, escape.

effundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus [ex + fundó], pour out.
ego, meí, pers. pron., I.
égredior, -gredí, -gressus [é + gradior], go out or _forth, go ashore,
égregié [égregius, excellent], adv., _excellently, splendidly,
Élis, -idis, f., Elis.
Elysius, -a, -um, Elysian.
é-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send out or forth.
enim, conj., for.
é-núntió, -núntiáre, -núntiáví, -núntiátus, _speak out, announce, make
eó, íre, ií, itus, go.
eó [is], adv., to that place, thither.
equus, -í, m., horse.
éréctus, -a, -um [part, of érigó], upright, erect.
ergá, prep, with acc., toward, for.
Ergínus, -í, m., Erginus.
Éridanus, -í, m., Eridanus.
érigó, -rigere, -réxí, -réctus [é + regó], raise or _set up, raise,
lift; cheer, encourage_.
éripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [é + rapió], snatch out or _away,
erró, -áre, -áví, -átus, wander, stray; be mistaken.
érudió, -rudíre, -rudíví, -rudítus, instruct.
Erymanthius, -a, -um, of Erymanthus, Erymanthian.
Erythía, -ae, f., Erythia.
et, conj., and; et ... et, both ... and.
etiam [et + iam], adv., and now, also, too, even.
et-sí, conj., even if, although.
Eunomus, -í, m., Eunomus.
Európa, -ae, f., Europe.
Eurylochus, -í, m., Eurylochus.
Eurystheus, -í, m., Eurystheus.
Eurytión, -ónis, m., Eurytion.
Eurytus, -í, m., Eurytus.
é-vádó, -vádere, -vásí, -vásus,
go forth, get away, escape.
é-vánéscó, -vánéscere, -vánuí, vanish away.
é-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come out; turn out, happen, befall.
é-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, call out, challenge.
é-vomó, -vomere, -vomuí, -vomitus, vomit forth.
ex or é (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel or
h), prep. with abl., out of, from; of.
ex-animó, -animáre, -animáví, -animátus, _put out of breath, fatigue,

    tire, exhaust; stupefy; kill. ex-árdéscó, -árdéscere, -ársí, -ársus, blaze out, be inflamed, rage. ex-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go out or forth, depart. excipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [ex + capió], take out or up,

    receive, welcome, entertain.

ex-citó, -citáre, -citáví, -citátus, call out, arouse.
ex-clámó, -clámáre, -clámáví, -clámátus, cry out, exclaim.
exclúdó, -clúdere, -clúsí, -clúsus [ex + claudó], _shut out, hinder,
ex-cógitó, -cógitáre, -cógitáví, -cógitátus, _think out, contrive,
devise, invent_.
ex-crució, -cruciáre, -cruciáví, cruciátus, torture.
ex-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go out.
exerceó, -ercére, -ercuí, -ercitus, exercise.
exercitátió, -ónis [exerceó], f., exercise.
exercitus, -ús, m., army.
ex-haurio, -hauríre, -hausí, -haustus, drink up or off, drain.

exístimó, -ístimáre, -ístimáví, -ístimátus [ex + aestimo, value],

    consider, believe, think. ex-orior, -orírí, -ortus, arise from, spring up, rise. ex-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, drive out, expel. ex-pió, -piáre, -piáví, -piátus, expiate. explórátor, -óris [explóró], m., explorer, scout, spy. ex-plóró, -plóráre, -plóráví, -plórátus, search out, explore. ex-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put out, set forth; put on shore,

    land; explain. exprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [ex + premó], press out.

exsilió, -silíre, -siluí [ex + salió], leap out
exsilium, -í [exsul, exile], n., exile.
or forth.
ex-spectó, -spectáre, -spectáví, -spectátus, _look out for, wait for,
await, expect; wait_.  
ex-spíró, -spíráre, -spíráví, -spírátus, _breathe out_.

ex-struó, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, pile or heap up, build,

    erect. extempló, adv., immediately, straightway, at once. ex-trahó, -trahere, -tráxí, -tráctus, draw or drag out, release,


extrémus, -a, -um, last, extreme, furthest.
exuó, -uere, -uí, -útus, put or take off.


faber, fabrí, m., smith.
fabricor, -árí, -átus [faber], make, fashion.
fábula, -ae [for, speak], f., story.
facile [facilis, easy], adv., easily.
facinus, facinoris [fació], n., deed, crime.
fació, facere, fécí, factus, make, do; iter facere, see iter.
facultás, -tátis [facilis, easy], f., _possibility, opportunity,

    chance, means. falló, fallere, fefellí, falsus, deceive. falsus, -a, -um [part. of falló], feigned, pretended, false. falx, falcis, f., sickle; curved sword, falchion.

fáma, -ae [for, speak], f., report, rumor.
famés, -is, abl. famé, f., hunger.
fár, farris, n., grain; meal.
fátum, -í [part. of for, speak], n., destiny, fate.
faucés, -ium, f. plur., throat.
fax, facis, f., torch, firebrand.
félíciter [félíx, happy], adv., happily, fortunately, successfully.
fémina, -ae, f., woman.
fera, -ae [ferus, wild], f., wild animal, beast.
feré, adv., nearly, about, almost, for the most part.
feró, ferre, tulí, látus, bear, bring.
feróx, -ócis [ferus, wild], adj., fierce, savage.
ferreus, -a, -um [ferrum, iron], of iron, iron.
ferveó, -ére, boil; glow, burn.
fessus, -a, -um, exhausted, worn out, weary.
figúra, -ae, f., form, shape, figure.
fília, -ae, f., daughter.
fílius, -í, m., son.
fingó, fingere, finxí, fictus, invent, make up.
fínis, -is, m., end, boundary; plur., borders, territory, country.
fínitimus, -a, -um [fínis], neighboring, adjoining.
fíó, fierí, factus sum, be done or made, become, happen.
flamma, -ae, f., flame.
flúmen, -minis [fluó, flow], n., river.
fóns, fontis, m., fountain, spring.
forás [foris], adv., out of doors, forth, out.
forís [foris], adv., out of doors, without.
foris, -is, f., door.
fórma, -ae, f., form, appearance; beauty.
fórmósus, -a, -um [fórma], beautiful.
forte [fors, chance], adv., by chance, accidentally.
fortis, -e, brave.
fortiter [fortis], adv., bravely.
fortúna, -ae [fors, chance], f., fortune.
fossa, -ae [part. of fodió, dig], f., ditch, trench.
frangó, frangere, frégí, fráctus, break; dash to pieces, wreck.
fráter, frátris, m., brother.
fraus, fraudis, f., deception, fraud.
fremitus, -ús [fremó, roar], m., roaring, roar.
frénó, -áre, -áví, -átus [frénum, bridle], bridle, restrain.
fretum, -í, n., strait.
fróns, frontis, f., forehead.
frúctus, -ús [fruor, enjoy], m., enjoyment; fruit.
frúmentor, -árí, -átus [frúmentum], fetch grain, forage.
frúmentum, -í [fruor, enjoy], n., grain.
frústrá, adv., in vain.
fuga, -ae, f., flight.
fugió, fugere, fúgí, fugitúrus [fuga], flee, run away.
fúmus, -í, m., smoke.
furor, -óris [furó, rage], m., rage, fury, frenzy, madness.
fúrtum, -í [fúr, thief], n., theft.


galea, -ae, f., helmet.
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul.
gaudeó, gaudére, gávísus, be glad, rejoice.
gaudium, -í [gaudeó], n., gladness, joy.
géns, gentis, f., race, nation.
genus, generis, n., kind, nature.
geró, gerere, gessí, gestus, carry, wear; carry on, do.
Géryón, -onis, m., Geryon.
gígnó, gígnere, genuí, genitus, produce, bring forth.
gladius, -í, m., sword.
Glaucé, -és, f., Glauce.
glória, -ae, f., glory.
Gorgó, -onis, f., Gorgon.
Graeae, -árum, f. plur., the Graeae.
Graecia, -ae [Graecus], f., Greece.
Graecus, -a, -um, Greek.
grátia, -ae [grátus], f., favor; gratitude, thanks; plur., thanks;
grátiás agere, to give thanks, thank; grátiam referre, _to return
a favor, show gratitude, requite_.

grátus, -a, -um, pleasing, grateful. gravis, -e, heavy; severe, grievous, serious. graviter [gravis], adv., severely, seriously.

gubernó, -áre, -áví, -átus, steer.
gustó, -áre, -áví, -átus, taste.


habeó, -ére, -uí, -itus, have, hold; consider.
habitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of habeó], dwell, inhabit.
Hádés, -ae, m., Hades.
haereó, haerére, haesí, haesúrus, stick; hesitate.
haesitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of haereó], hesitate.
Hammón, -ónis, m., Hammon.
haréna, -ae, f., sand; shore.
Harpýiae, -árum, f. plur., Harpies.
haud, adv., not at all, by no means, not.
haudquáquam [haud + quisquam], adv., in no wise, not at all.
haurió, hauríre, hausí, haustus, draw.
herba, -ae, f., herb, plant.
Herculés, -is, m., Hercules.
Hésioné, -és, f., Hesione.
Hesperidés, -um, f. plur., the Hesperides.
hesternus, -a, -um [herí, yesterday], of yesterday, yesterday's,
hesternus diés, yesterday.
híc [híc], adv., here; hereupon.
híc, haec, hóc, dem. pron., this; ille ... híc, _that ... this, the
former ... the latter_.
hinc [híc], adv., from this place, hence.
Hippolyté, -és, f., Hippolyte.
Hispánia, -ae, f., Spain.
Homérus, í-, m., Homer.
homó, hominis, m., man.
honor, -óris, m., honor.
hóra, -ae, f., hour.
horribilis, -e [horreó, shudder], dreadful, terrible, horrible.
hortor, -árí, -átus, exhort, encourage, urge.
hortus, -í, m., garden.
hospitium, -í [hospes, host], n., hospitality.
hostis, -is, m. and f., enemy, foe.
húc [híc], adv., to this place, hither.
húmánus, -a, -um [homó], of man, human.
humí [loc. of humus, ground], adv., on the ground.
Hydra, -ae, f., Hydra.
Hylás, -ae, m., Hylas.


iaceó, -ére, -uí, lie, be prostrate. iació, iacere, iécí, iactus, throw, cast, hurl.

iam, adv., now, already.
iánua, -ae, f., door.
Iásón, -onis, m., Jason.
ibi [is], adv., in that place, there.
íctus, -ús [ícó, strike], m., blow.

ídem, eadem, idem [is], dem. pron., the same; sometimes to be

    translated likewise, also. idóneus, -a, -um, suitable, fit; favorable. igitur, conj., therefore.

ígnárus, -a, -um [in-, not + gnárus, knowing], ignorant.
ígnávus, -a, -um [in-, not + gnávus, active], lazy, cowardly.
ígnis, -is, m., fire.
ígnóró, -áre, -áví, -átus, be ignorant of.
ígnótus, -a, -um [in-, not + nótus], unknown.
Ílias, -adis, f., the Iliad.
ille, illa, illud, dem. pron., that; he, she, it, they; ille ... híc,
see híc.
imber, imbris, m., rain, shower.
imbuó, -buere, -buí, -bútus, wet, soak, dip.
immánitás, -tátis [immánis, cruel], f., cruelty, barbarity.
immittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send or let in.
immoló, -moláre, -moláví, -molátus [in + mola], sacrifice (the victim
was sprinkled with consecrated meal).

impedió, -pedíre, -pedíví, -pedítus [in + pés], hinder, prevent,

    impede. impelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus [in + pelló], drive or urge on,

    incite, urge. imperátor, -óris [imperó], m., commander, general. imperátum, -í [part, of imperó], n., command, order. imperítus, -a, -um [in-, not + perítus], inexperienced, unskilled,


imperium, -í [imperó], n., command; sway, rule.
imperó, -peráre, -peráví, -perátus, command, order, enjoin.
impetró, -petráre, -petráví, -petrátus, gain one's end, obtain (a
impetus, -ús [in + petó], m., attack; impetum facere, to charge.

impónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [in + pónó], place or lay upon,

    impose; embark.

improbus, -a, -um [in-, not + probus, upright], wicked.
in, prep, with acc., into, in, to, upon; with abl., in, on.
incidó, -cidere, -cidí [in + cadó], fall into or upon.
inclúdó, -clúdere, -clúsí, -clúsus [in + claudó, shut], _shut up in,
inclose, imprison_.
incola, -ae [incoló], m. and f., inhabitant.
in-coló, -colere, -coluí, inhabit.
incolumis, -e, unhurt, safe.
in-commodum, -í, n., inconvenience.
in-crédibilis, e, incredible.
in-dúcó, -dúcere, dúxí, -ductus, lead in or on, move, excite.
induó, induere, induí, indútus, put on; clothe.
in-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go into, enter; adopt.
ínfandus, -a, -um [in-, not + ger. of for, speak], _unspeakable,
ínfáns, -fantis [in-, not + part. of for, speak], m. and f.,
infant, babe.

ínfectus, -a, -um [in-, not + part. of fació], not done, undone,

    unaccomplished. ín-félíx, -félícis, adj., unhappy, unfortunate. ínferí, -órum [ínferus, below], m. plur., inhabitants of the

    underworld, the dead, the shades. ínferó, ínferre, intulí, inlátus, bring in or against, wage against;


ínféstus, -a, -um, unsafe, dangerous.
ínfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [in + fació], stain, dye.
ín-fundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus, pour in or upon.
ingéns, -gentis, adj., huge, vast.
inició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [in +iació], throw in or _upon; cause,
inimícus, -a, -um [in-, not + amícus], unfriendly, hostile.
initium, -í [ineó], n., beginning.
iniúria, -ae [in-, not + iús], f., injury, wrong, hurt, harm.
inluviés, -éí, f., dirt, filth.
inquam, inquis, inquit, defective verb, I say, you say, he says.
in-rídeó, -rídére, -rísí, -rísus, laugh at, mock.
in-rumpó, -rumpere, -rúpí, -ruptus, burst into or in.
in-ruó, -ruere, -ruí, rush in.
ínsánia, -ae [ínsánus, mad], f., madness, insanity.
ínsciéns, -scientis [in-, not + part. of sció], adj., _unknowing,
ín-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow upon or up, pursue.

ínsidiae, -árum, f. plur., ambush; plot, stratagem. ínspergó, -spergere, -spersí, -spersus [in + spargó], sprinkle on or

    over. ínspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [in + speció], look into or

    upon. ínstituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [in + statuó], decide upon,

    determine. ín-struo, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, build in or into; draw up;

    equip, furnish, ínsula, -ae, f., island.
intellegó, -legere, -léxí, -léctus, perceive, understand. in-tendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus, stretch out; stretch, draw, aim. inter, prep, with acc., among, between. intereá [inter], adv., in the meantime, meanwhile. interfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [inter + fació], put out of the way,

    kill. interior, -ius [comp. from inter], adj., interior, inner. inter-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -míssus, leave off, interrupt; let pass;

    pass., be left between, intervene, elapse. inter-sum, -esse, -fuí, -futúrus, be or lie between. intervállum, -í, n., interval, space, distance.

intrá [inter], prep. with acc., within.
intró, -áre, -áví, -átus [intrá], go within or into, enter.
introitus, -ús [introeó, go within], m., entrance.
in-tueor, -tuérí, -tuitus, look upon, behold.
in-úsitátus, -a, -um, unusual, extraordinary.
in-útilis, -e, not useful, useless.
in-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come upon, find.
invító, -áre, -áví, -átus, invite.
invítus, -a, -um, unwilling.
Ioláus, -í, m., Iolaus.
Iolé, -és, f., Iole.
Iovis, gen. of Iuppiter.
Íphiclés, -is, m., Iphicles.
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pron., _self, himself, herself, itself,
themselves_; often to be rendered by very.
íra, -ae, f., anger, wrath.
íráscor, íráscí, írátus [íra], be angry.
írátus, -a, -um [part, of íráscor], angered, enraged, angry, furious.
is, ea, id, dem. pron., this, that; he, she, it, they.
iste, ista, istud, dem. pron., that of yours, that.
ita [is], adv., in this manner, thus, so; ita ut, as.
Ítalia, -ae, f., Italy.
ita-que, adv., and so, accordingly, therefore.
iter, itineris [eó], n., a going, journey, march; iter facere, _to
journey, march_.

iterum, adv., again, a second time.
Ithaca, -ae, f., Ithaca.
iubeó, iubére, iussí, iússus, bid, order, command.

iúcundus, -a, -um, sweet, pleasant.
iúdex, iúdicis [iús + dícó], m., judge.
iugum, -í [iungó], n., yoke.
iungó, iungere, iúnxí, iúnctus, join; yoke, harness.
Iúnó, -ónis, f., Juno.

Iuppiter, Iovis, m., Jupiter or Jove. iús, iúris, n., right, justice, law; iús dícere, to pronounce

    judgment; iús iúrandum, iúris iúrandí [ger. of iúró, swear], oath.

iússum, -í [part, of iubeó], n., order, command.
iússus, -ús [iubeó], m., bidding, command.
iústus, -a, -um [iús], just.
iuvenis, -is, m., young man, youth.


lábor, lábí, lapsus, slip, glide, fall.
labor, -óris, m., labor, toil.
labóró, -áre, -áví, -átus [labor], labor, toil.
lác, lactis, n., milk.
Lacónia, -ae, f., Laconia.
lacrima, -ae, f., tear.
lacus, -ús, m., lake.
laetitia, -ae [laetus, joyful], f., joy.
lámenta, -órum, n. plur., lamentation.
Láomedón, -ontis, m., Laomedon.
lapis, -idis, m., stone.
laqueus, -í, m., noose.
Lárísa, -ae, f., Larisa.
lassitúdó, -inis [lassus, weary], f., weariness.
lateó, -ére, -uí, lie hid, be concealed.
latró, -ónis, m., robber.
látus, -a, -um, broad, wide.
légátus, -í [part. of légó, depute], m., ambassador.
lénis, -e, gentle.
leó, -ónis, m., lion.
Lernaeus, -a, -um, of Lerna, Lernean.
Léthé, -és, f., Lethe.
levis, -e, light, slight.
leviter [levis], adv., slightly.
libenter [libéns, willing], adv., willingly, gladly.
líberí, -órum [líber, free], m. plur., children.
líberó, -áre, -áví, -átus [líber, free], _set free, free, liberate,
líbertás, -tátis [líber, free], f., freedom, liberty.
Libya, -ae, f., Libya, Africa.
licet, -ére, -uit or -itum est, impers., is lawful or permitted.
Lichás, -ae, m., Lichas.
lígneus, -a, -um [lígnum], of wood, wooden.
lígnum, -í, n., wood.
Ligurés, -um, m. plur., Ligurians.
Liguria, -ae [Ligurés], f., Liguria.
límen, -minis, n., threshold; door.
límus, -í, m., mud.
linter, lintris, f., boat, skiff.
Linus, -í, m., Linus.
lítus, lítoris, n., shore.
locus, -í, m., plur. loca, -orum, n., place, situation.
longé [longus], adv., far.
longinquus, -a, -um [longus], distant, remote.
longus, -a, -um, long; tedious.
loquor, loquí, locútus, speak.
lótus, -í, f., lotus.
lucrum, -í, n., gain.
luctor, -árí, -átus, wrestle, struggle.
lúdus, -í, m., game, sport.
lúmen, -minis, n., light.
lúx, lúcis, f., light.


magicus, -a, -um, magic.
magis, comp. adv., more, rather.
magister, -trí [magis], m., master.
mágnificé [mágnificus], adv., splendidly.
mágnificentia, -ae [mágnificus], f., splendor, magnificence.
mágnificus, -a, -um [mágnus + fació], splendid, magnificent.

mágnitúdó, -túdinis [mágnus], f., greatness, size. mágnopere [abl. of mágnum opus], adv., greatly, very much, exceedingly;

    earnestly. mágnus, -a, -um, large, big, great, mighty; loud. máior, máius, comp. of mágnus. male [malus], adv., badly, ill.
máló, málle, máluí [magis + voló], wish rather, prefer.

malum, -í [malus], n., evil, mischief.
malus, -a, -um, bad.
málus, -í, m., mast.
mandó, -dáre, -dáví, -dátus [manus + -dó, put], _put in hand, intrust,
commit; charge, command_.
máne, adv., in the morning, early in the morning.
maneó, manére, mánsí, mánsus, remain.
mánés, -ium, m. plur., spirit, shade.
manus, -ús, f., hand.
mare, maris, n., sea.
marítus, -í, m., husband.
Márs, Mártis, m., Mars.
máter, mátris, f., mother.
mátrimónium, -í [máter], n., marriage; in mátrimónium dúcere, marry.
mátúró, -áre, -áví, -átus [mátúrus, ripe], ripen; hasten.
máximé [máximus], adv., very greatly, exceedingly, especially.
máximus, -a, -um, superl. of mágnus.
Médéa, -ae, f., Medea.
medicámentum, -í [medicó, heal], n., drug; poison, potion.
medicína, -ae [medicus, physician], f., art of healing, medicine.
medius, -a, -um, mid, middle.
Medúsa, -ae, f., Medusa.
membrum, -í, n., limb, member.
memoria, -ae [memor, remembering], f., memory.
memoró, -áre, -áví, -átus [memor, remembering], remind of, mention.
mentió, -ónis, f., mention.
mercátor, -óris [mercor, trade], m., trader, merchant.
mercés, mercédis, f., pay, reward, wages.
Mercurius, -í, m., Mercury.
mergó, mergere, mersí, mersus, dip, plunge, sink.

merídiánus, -a, -um [merídiés], midday, noonday; merídiánum tempus,

    midday, noon.

merídiés, -éí [medius + diés], m., _midday, noon; south_.
meritus, -a, um [part. of mereó], deserved, due, just.
meus, -a, -um [ego, meí], my, mine.  
míles, mílitis, m., soldier.  
mílitáris, -e
[míles], military, warlike; rés mílitáris, _art of war,

mílle, indecl. adj., a thousand; mília, -ium, n. plur., thousands; mília passuum, thousands of paces, miles.

minae, -árum, f. plur., threats.
Minerva, -ae, f., Minerva.
minimé [minimus, least], adv., _least, very little; by no means, not at
minimum [minimus, least], adv., very little, slightly.
minitor, -árí, -átus [minae], threaten.
Mínós, Mínóis, m., Minos.
minus, comp. adv., less.
Minyae, -árum, m. plur., Minyae.
míráculum, -í [míror], n., wonder, marvel, miracle.
míror, -árí, -átus [mírus], wonder, wonder at.
mírus, -a, -um, wonderful, strange.
misceó, miscére, miscuí, míxtus, mix, mingle.
misericordia, -ae [misericors, pitiful], f;, pity, compassion.
mittó, mittere, mísí, missus, send.
modo [modus], adv., only.
modus, -í, m., way, manner.
moenia, -ium, n. plur., walls.
mola, -ae, f., meal.
molestia, -ae [molestus, annoying], f., annoyance.
moneó, -ére, -uí, -itus, warn.
móns, montis, m., mountain.
mónstró, -áre, -áví, -átus [mónstrum], point out, show.
mónstrum, -í, n., wonder, monster.
mora, -ae, f., delay.
mordeó, mordére, momordí, morsus, bite.
morior, morí, mortuus, die.
moror, -árí, -átus [mora], delay, linger, stay.
mors, mortís [morior], f., death.
mortális, -e [mors], mortal.
mortifer, -fera, -ferum [mors + feró], death-bringing, deadly.
mortuus, -a, -um [part. of morior], dead.
mós, móris, m., way, manner, habit, custom.
moveó, movére, móví, mótus, move.
mox, adv., soon.
múgió, -íre, -íví, low, bellow.
múgítus, -ús [múgió], m., lowing, bellowing.
mulier, mulieris, f., woman.
multitúdó, -túdinis [multus], f., multitude.
multó [multus], adv., by much or far, much, far.
multum, -í [multus], n., much.
multum [multus], adv., much, greatly, far.
multus, -a, -um, much, great; plur., many.
múnió, -íre, -íví, -ítus [moenia], fortify.
múnus, múneris, n., service, office, duty; present, gift.
múrus, -í, m., wall.
música, -ae, f., music.
mútó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of moveó], change.
Mýsia, -ae, f., Mysia.


nactus, part. of nancíscor.
nam, conj., for.
nam-que, conj., for.
nancíscor, nancíscí, nactus, get, obtain, find.

nárró, -áre, -áví, -átus, tell, relate, narrate.
nató, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of nó, swim], swim, float.
nátúra, -ae [náscor, be born], f., nature, character.
nauta, -ae [návis], m., sailor.
nauticus, -a, -um [nauta], naval, nautical.
návigátió, -ónis [návigó], f., sailing, navigation, voyage.
návigó, -áre, -áví, -átus [návis + agó], sail.
návis, -is, f., ship.
-ne, enclitic introducing a question, untranslatable.
né, adv., not; né ... quidem, not ... even; conj., that not, lest.
nec, see neque.
necesse, indecl. adj., necessary.
necó, -áre, -áví, -átus, put to death, slay, kill.
neglegó, -legere, -léxí, -léctus [nec + legó, gather], _disregard,
negó, -áre, -áví, -átus, say no or not, deny, refuse.
negótium, -í [nec + ótium, leisure], n., _business, matter; task,
trouble, difficulty_.
Nemeaeus, -a, -um, of Nemea, Nemean.
némó, néminis [ne-, not + homó], m. and f., no one, nobody.
nepós, nepótis, m., grandson.
Neptúnus, -í, m., Neptune.
neque or nec [ne-, not + -que], conj., and not, nor; neque ... neque,
neither ... nor; neque enim, for ... not.
nervus, -í, m., sinew, muscle.
ne-sció, -scíre, -scíví, not know, be ignorant; nesció quis, _I know
not who, some one or other_ (nesció is thus used with other
interrogative words also).

Nessus, -í, m., Nessus.
neu, see néve.

neuter, neutra, neutrum [ne-, not + uter], neither.
néve or neu [né + -ve, or], conj., and that not, and not, nor.
niger, nigra, nigrum, black.
nihil, n., indecl., nothing.
nisi [ne-, not + sí], conj., if not, unless.
nix, nivis, f., snow.
noctú [nox], adv., at or by night.
nocturnus, -a, -um [nox], of night, nocturnal; nocturnum tempus,
nóló, nólle, nóluí [ne-, not + voló], not wish, be unwilling.

nómen, -minis [nóscó, come to know], n., name (that by which one is


nón, adv., not.
nón-dum, adv., not yet.
nón-ne, adv., introducing a question to which an affirmative answer is
expected, not?
nón-núllus, -a, -um, not none, some, several.

nós, plur. of ego.
noster, -tra, -trum [nós], our. nótus, -a, -um [part. of nóscó, come to know], known, well-known,

    famous_. novem, indecl. adj., nine.

novitás, -tátis [novus], f., newness, novelty.
novus, -a, -um, new; novissimus, last.
nox, noctis, f., night.
núbés, -is, f., cloud.
núdus, -a, -um, naked, bare.
núllus, -a, -um [ne-, not + úllus], not any, none, no.
num, adv., introducing a question to which a negative answer is expected,
numerus, -í, m., number.
nummus, -í, m., coin.
numquam [ne-, not + umquam, ever], adv., never.
nunc, adv., now.
núntió, -áre, -áví, -átus [núntius], report, announce.
núntius, -í [novus], m., messenger; message.
núper [novus], adv., newly, lately, recently.
núsquam [ne-, not + úsquam, anywhere], adv., nowhere.
nympha, -ae, f., nymph.


ob, prep. with acc., on account of, for; in compounds, to, against.

obició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ob + iació], throw in the way or to.
ob-iúrgó, -iúrgáre, -iúrgáví, -iúrgátus, chide, scold, reproach.
ob-linó, -linere, -léví, -litus, daub over, smear.
oblítus, -a, -um [part. of oblívíscor], forgetful, unmindful.
oblívíscor, -lívíscí, -lítus, forget.

obscúró, -scúráre, -scúráví, -scúrátus [obscúrus], darken, hide,


obscúrus, -a, -um, dark.
obsecró, -secráre, -secráví, -secrátus, beseech, entreat.
ob-seró, -serere, -séví, -situs, sow, plant; cover, fill.
obsideó, -sidére, -sédí, -sessus [ob + sedeó], beset, besiege.
ob-struó, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, build against, block up.

ob-testor, -testárí, -testátus, call to witness; beseech, implore. obtineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [ob + teneó], hold. obviam [ob + via], adv., in the way, opposite, face to face; obviam

    fierí, to meet; obviam íre, to go to meet.

occásió, -ónis [occidó, fall], f., chance, opportunity.
occásus, -ús [occidó, fall], m. setting.
occídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [ob + caedó, cut], cut down, kill.
occupó, -cupáre, -cupáví, -cupátus [ob + capió], seize; fill.
occurró, -currere, -currí, -cursus [ob + curró], run against, meet.
Oceanus, -í, m., Oceanus, the ocean.
oculus, -í, m., eye.

ódí, ódisse, used only in tenses of completed action with the force of

    tenses of incomplete action, hate.

odium, -í [ódí], n., hatred.
odor, -óris, m., smell, odor.
Oechalia, -ae, f., Oechalia.
Oeneus, -í, m., Oeneus.
Oeta, -ae, f., Oeta.
offendó, -fendere, -fendí, -fénsus, offend.
offeró, offerre, obtulí, oblátus [ob + feró], bear to, proffer, offer.
officína, -ae, f., workshop, smithy.
officium, -í, n., service; duty.

ólim, adv., once upon a time, once, formerly, of old. Olympus, -í, m., Olympus.
omittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus [ob + mittó], let go, neglect,

    disregard, throw away, lose. omnínó [omnis], adv., altogether, wholly, entirely.

omnis, -e, all, every.  
oneró, -áre, -áví, -átus [onus, load], load, burden.
opera, -ae [opus], f., _effort, work, labor_.
opínió, -ónis [opínor, think], f., opinion, expectation; reputation.
oppidum, -í, n., town.  

opportúnus, -a, -um, suitable, seasonable, convenient, opportune. opprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [ob + premó], press against,

    overpower, crush. optimus, -a, -um, superl. of bonus.

opus, operis, n., work, task.
óráculum, -í [óró], n., oracle.
órátió, -ónis [óró], f., speech; órátiónem habére, _to deliver an
oration, speak_.
orbis, -is, m., circle; orbis terrae or terrárum, circle of the earth

    or lands, earth, world. Orcus, -í, m., Orcus, under-world. órdó, órdinis, m., arrangement, order, rank; ex órdine, in order. orior, -írí, -tus, arise, come forth, spring up; ortá lúce, at dawn.

órnó, -áre, -áví, -átus, equip, adorn.
óró, -áre, -áví, -átus [ós], speak; beg, pray.
Orpheus, -í, m., Orpheus.
ós, óris, n., mouth.
ostendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus [ob + tendó], _stretch out before,
show, explain_.
óstium, -í [ós], n., mouth, doorway, door.
ovis, -is, f., sheep.


pábulum, -í [páscó], n., food, fodder. paene, adv., almost, nearly.
palaestra, -ae, f., wrestling-place, gymnasium.

pálus, -í, m., stake.
palús, -údis, f., swamp, marsh.
parátus, -a, -um [part. of paró], prepared, equipped, ready.
páreó, -ére, -uí, obey.
paró, -áre, -áví, -átus, make ready, prepare.
pars, partis, f., part, side, direction.
parvus, -a, -um, little, small.
páscó, páscere, páví, pástus, feed.
passus, -ús [pandó, stretch], m., pace_; mília passuum, see mílle.
pástor, -tóris [páscó], m., shepherd.
patefació, -facere, -fécí, -factus [pateó, be open + fació], throw,
or lay open, open.
pater, patris, m., father.
patior, patí, passus, bear, suffer, allow.
patria, -ae [pater], f., fatherland, country.
paucí, -ae, -a, plur. adj., few.
pauló [paulus, little], adv., by a little, a little, somewhat.
paulum [paulus, little], adv., a little, somewhat.
pavor, -óris [payeó, be terrified], m., terror, panic.

pectus, pectoris, n., breast.
pecúnia, -ae [pecus], f., money (the possession of cattle constituting

    wealth in early times). pecus, pecoris, n., herd, flock, cattle. pecus, pecudis, f., head of cattle, beast, sheep, goat.

Peliás, -ae, m., Pelias.
pellis, -is, f., hide, skin, pelt.
pelló, pellere, pepulí, pulsus, drive, drive away, beat, rout.
pendó, pendere, pependí, pénsus, weigh out, pay.
Pénelopé, -és, f., Penelope.

per, prep, with ace., through, by means of. percipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [per + capió], feel. percutió, -cutere, -cussí, -cussus [per + quatió], strike through,

    strike. per-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead or bring through, lead,

    bring. peregrínus, -í, m., stranger, foreigner. perennis, -e [per + annus], lasting throughout the year, perennial,

    perpetual. per-eó, -íre, -ii, -itúrus, pass away, perish. per-feró, -ferre, -tulí, -látus, bear through, bear, endure; weather. perfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [per + fació], do or make through,

    accomplish. per-fló, -fláre, blow through or over. per-fodió, -fodere, -fódí, -fossus, dig or pierce through, transfix. perículum, -í, n., danger, peril, risk. per-lústró, -lústráre, -lústrávi, -lústrátus, look over, examine,

    survey. per-maneó, -manére, -mánsi, -mánsus, remain. perpetuus, -a, -um [per + petó], continuous, perpetual; in perpetuum,

    for all time, forever. per-rumpó, -rumpere, -rúpí, -ruptus, break or burst through, break. per-scríbó, -scríbere, -scrípsí, scríptus, write through or in full,

    describe fully, recount. per-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow up, pursue. Perseus, -í, m., Perseus.
per-solvó, -solvere, -solví, -solútus, pay completely, pay. per-suádeó, -suádére, -suási, -suásus, persuade, prevail upon,

    induce. per-terreó, -terrére, -terrui, -territus, thoroughly frighten, terrify. per-turbó, -turbáre, -turbávi, -turbátus, greatly disturb, disturb,

    agitate, throw into confusion. per-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come through, come, arrive, reach.

pés, pedis, m., foot.
petó, -ere, -íví or -ií, -ítus, seek, ask; attack.
Phásis, -idis, m., Phasis.
Phíneus, -í, m., Phineus.
Pholus, -í, m., Pholus.
Phrixus, -í, m., Phrixus.
pinguis, -e, fat.
piscátor, -tóris [piscor, fish], m., fisherman.
plausus, -ús [plaudó, clap], m., applause.
plúrés, -a [comp. of multus], plur. adj., more, many, several.
plúrimus, -a, -um, superl. of multus.
Plútó, -ónis, m., Pluto.
póculum, -í [pótó, drink], n., cup.
poena, -ae, f., penalty, punishment.
poéta, -ae, m., poet.
polliceor, -licérí, -licitus, promise.
Polydectés, -is, m., Polydectes.
Polyphémus, -í, m., Polyphemus.
pómum, -í, n., fruit, apple.
pondus, ponderis [pendó], n., weight.
pónó, pónere, posuí, positus, place, put; póní with in and abl., _to be
placed in, rest_ or depend on.
póns, pontis, m., bridge.
porcus, -í, m., pig, hog, swine.
porta, -ae, f., gate; door.
portus, -ús, m., harbor, haven, port.
póscó, póscere, popóscí, ask, demand.
possideó, -sidére, -sédí, -sessus, hold, possess.
possum, posse, potuí [potis, able + sum], be able, have power, can.

post, adv., after, later; prep. with acc., after, behind. posteá [post], adv., after this, afterwards. posterus, -a, -um [post], following, next. post-quam, conj., later than, after, when. postrémus, -a, -um [superl. of posterus], last. postrídié [posterus + diés], adv., the day after, the next day. postuló, -áre, -áví, -átus, ask, request, demand. potior, -írí, -ítus [potis, able], become master of, get possession

    of. prae-acútus, -a, -um, sharp at the end, pointed, sharp. praebeó, -ére, -uí, -itus [prae, before + habeó], hold forth, supply,

    furnish, give; show, present, exhibit. prae-caveó, -cavére, -cáví, -cautus, beware beforehand, beware, be on

    one's guard. praecipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [prae, before + capió], take

    beforehand, anticipate; order, charge. praecipué [praecipuus, especial], adv., especially. prae-clárus, -clára, -clárum, very bright; splendid, remarkable,

    famous. praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoil, plunder. prae-dícó, -dícere, -díxí, -dictus, say beforehand, foretell, predict.

praedor, -árí, -átus [praeda], plunder.
praemium, -í, n., reward.
praeséns, -sentis [part. of praesum], adj., _present, immediate,
praesentia, -ae [praeséns], f., the present.

praeses, praesidis, m., protector.
praesidium, -í [praeses], n., protection; guard, escort. praestáns, -stantis [part. of praestó], adj., preëminent, remarkable. prae-stó, -stáre, -stití, -stitus, stand in front; show. prae-sum, -esse, -fuí, be before, preside over, have charge of,

    command. praeter [prae, before], prep. with acc., before, past, by; besides,

    except. praetereá [praeter], adv., besides this, besides, moreover.

praeter-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, pass by.
precés, -um, f. plur., prayer, entreaty.
prehendó, -hendere, -hendí, -hénsus, seize.
premó, premere, pressí, pressus, press, check, restrain.
pretium, -í, n., price, charge.
prímó [prímus], adv., at first.
prímum [prímus], adv., first, in the first place.
prímus, -a, -um [superl. from pró], first, foremost.
prístinus, -a, -um [prius], former.
prius [prior, former], adv., before, first.
prius-quam, conj., before than, sooner than, before.
pró, prep. with abl., _before, in front of; for, in behalf of; for, as;
in return for, for_.

procul, adv., at or from a distance, far. proelium, -í, n., battle, combat; proelium committere, to join

    battle. profectió, -ónis [proficíscor], f., departure, start. proficíscor, -ficíscí, -fectus [prófició, make progress], set out,

    depart, start, march_. prógredior, -gredí, -gressus [pró + gradior], go forward, advance. prohibeó, -hibére, -hibuí, -hibitus [pró + habeó], hold back, prevent,

    hinder. próició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [pró + iació], throw forth or down,

    cast away, throw. pró-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send or put forth, promise. prómó, prómere, prómpsí, prómptus [pró + emó], take or bring out,

    produce. prómunturium, -í, n., headland, promontory. properó, -áre, -áví, -átus, hasten. pró-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put or set before, offer,

    propose; set forth, say. propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of. próra, -ae, f., prow, bow.
pró-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow forward, follow. Próserpina, -ae, f., Proserpina, Proserpine. pró-sternó, -sternere, -stráví, -strátus, strew or spread before,

    throw or knock down. pró-sum, pródesse, prófuí, be of advantage, profit, avail, assist. pró-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, carry forward.

pró-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, call forth or out, challenge.
proximus, -a, -um [superl. from prope, near], nearest, next.
prúdentia, -ae [prúdéns, prudent], f., prudence.
puella, -ae [puer], f., girl, maiden.
puer, puerí, m., boy.
pueritia, -ae [puer], f., boyhood.
púgna, -ae, f., fighting, battle, combat.
púgnó, -áre, -áví, -átus [púgna], fight.

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful. pulsó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of pelló], push or strike against,

    knock, knock at.

punctum, -í [pungó, prick], n., point, instant, moment.
púrgó, -áre, -áví, -átus [púrus, clean + agó], _make clean, clean,
putó, -áre, -áví, -átus, think.
Pýthia, -ae, f., Pythia.


quá [quí], adv., in which place, where. quaeró, quaerere, quaesíví, quaesítus, seek; ask, inquire. quális, -e, of what sort? what kind of? quam [quis and quí], adv., how? as; than; with superl., as ... as

    possible. quam-quam, conj., however much, although. quantum [quantus], adv., how much? how?

quantus, -a, -um, how great or much?
quartus, -a, -um [quattuor], fourth.
quasi [quí + sí], conj., as if.
quattuor, indecl. adj., four.
-que, enclitic conj., and.

quí, quae, quod, rel. pron., who, which. quí, quae, quod, interrog. pron. adj., what? quídam, quaedam, quoddam, indef. pron., a certain, certain. quidem, adv., in fact, indeed, certainly; né ... quidem, not ...


quiés, quiétis, f., rest, repose.
quín, conj., so that ... not, but that, but.
quínquágintá [quínque, five], indecl. adj., fifty.
quíntus, -a, -um [quínque, five], fifth.
quis, quid, interrog. pron., who? which? what?

quis, qua, quid, indef. pron., any one, anybody, anything, some one,

    somebody, something. quis-nam, quaenam, quidnam, interrog. pron., who, which, or what,

    pray? who? which? what? quis-quam, quicquam, indef. pron., any one, anything. quis-que, quaeque, quidque, indef. pron., each. quó [quis and quí], adv., to what place? whither? to which place,

whither; for which reason, wherefore, therefore; quó úsque, till when? how long?

quod [quí], conj., that, in that, because. quoniam [cum + iam], conj., since now, since. quoque [quí + -que], adv., also. quotannís [quot, how many + annus], adv., every year, yearly,

    annually. quotiéns [quot, how many, adv., as often as.


rámus, -í, m., branch, bough.
rapió, -ere, -uí, -tus, seize, snatch.
ratió, -ónis [reor, think], f., plan, means, method, manner_.
recipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [re- + capió], take or _get back,
recover_; sé recipere, _to betake oneself, withdraw; to collect
oneself, recover_.
re-creó, -creáre, -creáví, -creátus, make anew, renew, refresh.
réctus, -a, -um [part. of regó, direct], direct, straight.
re-cumbó, -cumbere, -cubuí, lie back or down.
recuperó, -áre, -áví, -átus, recover.
recúsó, -cúsáre, -cúsáví, -cúsátus [re- + causa], _give a reason against,
reddó, -dere, -didí, -ditus [re- + dó], _give back, return, restore;

    render. redeó, -íre, -ií, -itus [re- + eó], go back, return. redintegró, -integráre, -integráví, -integrátus [re- + integró, make

whole_], make whole again, renew.
reditus, -ús [redeó], m., return.
re-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead or bring back; restore.
re-feró, referre, rettulí, relátus, bring or carry back, return;
pedem referre, to draw back, retire, retreat; grátiam referre,

see grátia.

refició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [re- + fació], make anew, renew,

    repair. re-fugió, -fugere, -fúgí, flee back, run away, retreat. re-fulgeó, -fulgére, -fulsí, flash back, shine.

régia, -ae [régius, royal], f., palace.
régína, -ae [réx], f., queen.
regió, -ónis [regó, direct], f., direction; country, region.
régnó, -áre, -áví, -átus [régnum], reign, rule.
régnum, -í [réx], n., royal power, rule, throne; kingdom, realm.
regredior, -gredí, -gressus [re- + gradior], go back, return.
re-linquó, -linquere, -líquí, -lictus, leave behind, leave.
reliquus, -a, -um [relinquó], _left, the remaining, the other, the rest
remedium, -í [re- + medeor, heal], n., remedy.
rémigó, -áre [rémex, rower], row.
re-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, move back, remove.
rémus, -í, m., oar.
re-núntió, -núntiáre, -núntiáví, -núntiátus, _bring back word, report,

    announce. re-pelló, repellere, reppulí, repulsus, drive back or away, repulse,

    repel. reperió, reperíre, repperí, repertus, find, discover. repertor, -óris [reperió], m., discoverer, inventor. re-pleó, -plére, -pléví, -plétus, fill again or up, fill. re-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put or set back; store up or

    away. re-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, carry or bring back. re-púgnó, -púgnáre, -púgnáví, -púgnátus, fight against, struggle,

    resist. rés, reí, f., thing, matter, affair, circumstance, situation; ré vérá,

    in truth, in fact, really. re-sistó, -sistere, -stití, stand back, resist. re-spíró, -spíráre, -spíráví, -spírátus, breathe back or out,

    breathe. re-spondeó, -spondére, -spondí, -spónsus, reply, answer. respónsum, -í [part. of respondeó], n., reply, answer, response. restituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [re- + statuó], set up again,

    put back, restore. retineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [re- + teneó], hold or keep back,

    keep, restrain; hold fast. revertor, -vertí, -versus, perf. act. -vertí [re- + vertó], turn back,

    return. réx, régis [regó, direct], m., king. Rhadamanthus, -í, m., Rhadamanthus.

rídeó, rídére, rísí, rísus, laugh.
rípa, -ae, f., bank.
ríte [rítus, rite], adv., duly, fitly.
róbur, róboris, n., oak.
rogó, -áre, -áví, -átus, ask.
rogus, -í, m., funeral pile, pyre.
Róma, -ae, f., Rome.
róstrum, -í [ródó, gnaw], n., beak.
ruó, -ere, -í, -itúrus, rush.
rúpés, -is, f., rock, cliff; reef.
rúrsus [for reversus, part, of revertor], adv., again.


saccus, -í, m., bag, sack.
sacerdós, -dótis [sacer, holy + dó], m. and f., priest, priestess. sacrificium, -í [sacrifice], n., sacrifice. sacrificó, -áre, -áví, -átus [sacer, holy + fació], sacrifice. saepe, adv., often, frequently.

saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage.
sagitta, -ae, f., arrow.
sál, salis, m., salt.
Salmydéssus, -í, m., Salmydessus.
salsus, -a, -um [sál], salted, salt.
salús, salútis [salvus, safe], f., safety, deliverance, escape.
sánctus, -a, -um [part, of sanció, make sacred], consecrated, sacred.
sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood.
sánitás, -tátis [sánus, sound], f., soundness; right reason, sanity.
satis, adv., enough, sufficiently.
saxum, -í, n., rock, stone.
scapha, -ae, f., boat, skiff.
scelus, sceleris, n., wickedness, crime.
scientia, -ae [sció], f., knowledge, skill.
sció, -íre, -íví, -ítus, know.
scríbó, scríbere, scrípsí, scríptus, write.
scútum, -í, n., shield.
sé-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go apart, withdraw.
secundus, -a, -um [sequor], following, favorable.
sed, conj., but.
sedeó, sedére, sédí, sessus, sit.
sédés, -is [sedeó], f., seat, abode.
sémentis, -is [semen, seed], f., seeding, sowing.
semper, adv., always.
senex, senis, m., old man.
sententia, -ae [sentió], f., opinion; purpose.
sentió, sentíre, sénsí, sénsus, perceive, feel.
sepelió, sepelíre, sepelíví, sepultus, bury.
septimus, -a, -um [septem, seven],seventh.
sepultúra, -ae [sepelió], f., burial.
sequor, sequí, secútus, follow.
Seríphus, -í, f., Seriphos.
sermó, -ónis [seró, interweave], m., conversation, talk, speech.
seró, serere, séví, satus, sow, plant.
serpéns, -entis [part, of serpó, crawl], f., serpent.
servió, -ire, -íví, -ítus [servus], be subject to, serve.
servitús, -tútis [servus], f., slavery, servitude.
servó, -áre, -áví, -átus, save, preserve.
servus, -í, m., slave, servant.
sí, conj., if.
síc, adv., so, thus.
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily.
sígnum, -í, n., sign, signal.
silva, -ae, f., wood, forest.
simul, adv., at the same time; simul atque or ac, as soon as.
sine, prep. with abl., without.
sinister, -tra, -trum, left.
sinistra, -ae [sinister], f., left hand (manus understood).
sinus, -ús, m., bosom, lap.
situs, -a, -um [part. of sinó], placed, situated.
sí-ve or seu, conj., or if; síve ... síve, whether ... or.
socius, -í [sequor], m., companion, comrade, ally.
sól, sólis, m., sun.
solium, -í [sedeó], n., seat, throne.
sollicitúdó, -túdinis [sollicitus], f., anxiety, care, apprehension.
sollicitus, -a, -um, troubled, anxious.
sólus, -a, -um, alone.

solvó, solvere, solví, solútus, loosen, unbind, release; pay; with or

    without návem, cast off, set sail, put to sea.

somnus, -í, m., sleep, drowsiness.
sonitus, -ús [sonó, sound], m. sound, noise.
sonórus, -a, -um [sonó, sound], sounding, loud, noisy.
soror, -óris, f., sister.
sors, sortis, f., lot.
sortior, -írí, -ítus [sors], cast or draw lots.
spargó, spargere, sparsí, sparsus, scatter, sprinkle.
spatium, -í, n., space, interval; space of time, time.
speciés, -éí [speció, look], f., sight, appearance, shape.
spectátor, -óris [spectó], m., looker-on, spectator.
spectó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of speció, look], look at or on.
speculum, -í [speció, look], n., looking-glass, mirror.
spélunca, -ae, f., cave, cavern.
spernó, spernere, spréví, sprétus, despise, scorn.
spéró, -áre, -áví, -átus [spés], hope.
spés, speí, f., hope.
sponte, f. abl. sing., modified by meá, tuá, suá, _of one's own accord,
squálor, -óris [squáleó, be dirty], m., dirt, filth.

stabulum, -í [stó], n., standing-place, stall, stable, inclosure. statim [stó], adv., on the spot, forthwith, at once, immediately. statuó, statuere, statuí, statútus [stó], cause to stand; decide,


stípendium, -í, n., tax, tribute.
stó, stáre, stetí, status, stand.
stringó, stringere, strinxí, strictus, draw, unsheathe.
studeó, -ére, -uí, be eager, give attention, apply oneself.
studiósus, -a, -um [studium], eager, diligent, studious.
studium, -í [studeó], n., eagerness, zeal; study, pursuit.
stupeó, -ére, -uí, be stunned, astounded, or amazed.
Stymphálus, -í, m., Stymphalus.
Stymphális, -idis [Stymphálus], adj., of Stymphalus, Stymphalian.
Styx, Stygis, f., Styx.
suávis, -e, sweet, pleasant.
sub, prep. with acc. and abl., under; sub vesperum, towards evening.
sub-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put under, apply.
sub-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, draw up, beach.

sub-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go under; undergo, submit to, sustain, bear,

    endure. subició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [sub + iació], throw or place under. subitó [subitus, unexpected], adv., unexpectedly, suddenly. sub-levó, -leváre, -leváví, -levátus, lift from beneath, lift, raise. sub-mergó, -mergere, -mersí, -mersus, plunge under, sink, overwhelm. subsidium, -í [sub + sedeó], n., reserve, reinforcement, support, help. succédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus [sub + cédó], go or come under,

    follow after, succeed. succendó, -cendere, -cendí, -cénsus, kindle beneath, set on fire.

succídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [sub + caedó], cut below or down.
súcus, -í, m., juice.
suí, sibi, sé or sésé, reflexive pron., _himself, herself, itself,
sum, esse, fuí, futúrus, be.

summus, -a, -um [superl. of superus, upper], uppermost, highest,

    greatest. súmó, súmere, súmpsí, súmptus [sub + emó], take under or up, take;

    poenam súmere, to exact or inflict punishment. superior, -ius [comp. of superus, upper], adj., higher; former,

    previous, preceding. superó, -áre, -áví, -átus [superus, upper], overcome, defeat,

    conquer. super-sum, -esse, -fuí, be over or left, remain. supplicium, -í [supplex, kneeling], n., punishment, torture. suppónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [sub + pónó], place or put under. suprá [superus, upper], adv. and prep. with acc., above, before. suprémus, -a, -um [superl. of superus, upper], highest, last. suscipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [sub + capió], undertake. suspendó, -pendere, -pendí, -pénsus [sub + pendó], hang up, hang. suspíció, -ónis [suspició, look askance at], f., suspicion. suspicor, -spicárí, -spicátus [suspició, look askance at], suspect. sustineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [sub + teneó], hold or bear up,

    sustain, withstand. suus, -a, -um [suí], his, her, its, or their own; his, her, its,

    their. Symplégadés, -um, f. plur., the Symplegades.


taceó, -ére, -uí, -itus, be silent.
tacitus, -a, -um [part. of taceó],
Taenarus, -í, m., Taenarus.
tálária, -ium [tálus, ankle], n.
tális, -e, such.
tam, adv., so.
plur., winged shoes.

tamen, adv., however, yet, nevertheless. tandem, adv., at length or last, finally. tangó, tangere, tetigí, táctus, touch.

tantum [tantus], adv., so much or far, only.
tantus, -a, -um, so great or much.
Tartarus, -í, m., Tartarus.
taurus, -í, m., bull.
tegó, tegere, téxí, téctus, cover.
télum, -í, n., missile, spear, weapon.
temeré, adv., rashly.
tempestás, -tátis [tempus], f., weather; storm, tempest.
templum, -í, n., sanctuary, temple.
temptó, -áre, -áví, -átus, try, attempt.
tempus, temporis, n., time, season.
teneó, -ére, -uí, -tus, hold, keep; hold back, restrain, stop.
tenuis, -e, thin.
tergum, -í, n., back.
terra, -ae, f., land, earth.
terreó, -ére, -uí, -itus, frighten, terrify.
terribilis, -e [terreó], dreadful, terrible.
terror, -óris [terreó], m., terror, fright.
tertium [tertius], adv., the or a third time.
tertius, -a, -um [trés], third.
texó, -ere, -uí, -tus, weave.
Thébae, -árum, f. plur., Thebes.
Thébání, -órum [Thébae], m. plur., Thebans.
Thermódón, -ontis, m., Thermodon.
Théseus, -í, m., Theseus.
Thessalia, -ae, f., Thessaly.
Thrácia, -ae, f., Thrace.
Tiberis, -is, m., Tiber.
timeó, -ére, -uí, fear.
timor, -óris [timeó], m., fear.
tingó, tingere, tinxí, tinctus, wet, soak, dye.
Tíryns, Tírynthis, f., Tiryns.
tolló, tollere, sustulí, sublátus, lift, raise; take away, remove;
ancorás tollere, to weigh anchor.
torqueó, torquére, torsí, tortus, turn.
tótus, -a, -um, all the, the whole or entire.
tráctó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of trahó], handle, touch, feel.
trádó, -dere, -didí, -ditus [trans + do], give across, over, or _up,
deliver; hand down, relate, report_.
trádúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus [tráns + dúcó], lead across.

trahó, trahere, tráxí, tráctus, draw, drag. tráició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [tráns + iació], throw across, strike

    through, pierce. tráiectus, -ús [tráició], m., crossing over, passage. tránó, -náre, -náví [tráns + nó, swim], swim across or over. tranquillitás, -tátis [tranquillus], f., calm. tranquillus, -a, -um, calm.
tráns, prep. with acc., across, over.

tráns-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go across or over, cross.
tráns-fígó, -fígere, -fíxí, -fíxus, thrust or _pierce through,
tráns-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, carry across or _over,
tráns-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, carry across or over.
trés, tria, plur. adj., three.
tribútum, -í [part. of tribuó, contribute], n., _contribution,
trístitia, -ae [trístis, sad], f., sadness.
Tróia, -ae, f., Troy.
Tróiání, -órum [Tróia], m. plur., Trojans.
tú, tuí, pers. pron., thou, you.
tum, adv., then, at that time.
turbó, -áre, -áví, -átus [turba, confusion], _confuse, throw into
disorder, disturb, trouble_.
turbó, turbinis [turbó], m., whirlwind, hurricane.
turpis, -e, disgraceful.
tútus, -a, -um [part. of tueor, watch over], safe.
tuus, -a, -um [tú], thy, thine, your.


ubi, adv., where; conj., when.

ulcíscor, ulcíscí, ultus, avenge.
úllus, -a, -um, any.
últerior, -ius [comp. from últrá, beyond], adj., farther.
Ulixés, -is, m., Ulysses.
umbra, -ae, f., shadow, shade.
umerus, -í, m., shoulder.
umquam, adv., ever.
unda, -ae, f., wave.
unde, adv., whence.
úndecimus, -a, -um [úndecim, eleven], eleventh.
undique [unde + -que], adv., from or on all sides.
ungó, ungere, únxí, únctus, smear, anoint.
unguentum, -í [ungó], n., ointment.
úniversus, -a, -um [únus + vertó], all together, whole, entire, all.
únus, -a, -um, one; only, alone.
urbs, urbis, f., city.
úró, úrere, ússí, ústus, burn.
úsque, adv., all the time; úsque ad, as far as, until; quó úsque,
see quó.
úsus, -ús [útor], m., use; experience.
ut, conj., as; when; that; ita ut, as.
uter, utra, utrum, which? of two.
úter, útris, m., wine-skin.
uter-que, utraque, utrumque, each, either, both.

útor, útí, úsus, use. utrimque [uterque], adv., on either side or both sides. uxor, -óris, f., wife.


vacuus, -a, -um [vacó, be empty], empty. valeó, -ére, -uí, -itúrus, be strong or effectual, have effect,


validus, -a, -um [valeó], strong.
vallis, -is, f., valley.
varius, -a, -um, various.
vás, vásis, n., plur. vása, -órum, vessel.
vástó, -áre, -áví, -átus [vástus], lay waste.
vástus, -a, -um, waste, huge, enormous, vast.
vehementer [veheméns, violent], adv., _violently, vehemently;
earnestly; exceedingly, greatly_.
vehó, vehere, vexí, vectus, carry.
vellus, velleris, n., fleece.
véló, -áre, -áví, -átus [vélum, veil], veil, cover.
vel-ut, even or just as, as.
vénátió, -ónis [vénor, hunt], f., hunting.
venénum, -í, n., poison.
venió, veníre, véní, ventus, come.
venter, ventris, m., belly.
ventus, -í, m., wind.
verbum, -í, n., word.
vereor, -érí, -itus, fear.
véró [vérus], adv., in truth, indeed; however.
versor, -árí, -átus [freq. of vertó], keep turning, be busy or

    employed, be. vertó, vertere, vertí, versus, turn.

vérus, -a, -um, true; ré vérá, in truth, in fact.
véscor, -í, feed on, eat.
vesper, vesperí, m., evening.
vester, -tra, -trum [vós], your.
vestígium, -í [vestígó, track], n., track, foot-print.
vestis, -is, f., clothing, dress, robe.
vestítus, -ús [vestió, clothe], m., clothing.
via, -ae, f., road, way.
viátor, -tóris [via], m., wayfarer, traveler.
victima, -ae [vincó, overcome], f., victim.
victória, -ae [vincó, overcome], f., victory.
víctus, -ús [vívó], m., sustenance, food.
vícus, -í, m., village.
videó, vidére, vídí, vísus, see; pass., seem.
vigilia, -ae [vigil, awake], f., watch.
vígintí, indecl. adj., twenty.
vílla, -ae, f., country-house, villa.
vímen, -minis, n., osier.
vinció, vincíre, vinxí, vinctus, bind.
vinculum, -í [vinció], n., bond, chain.
vínum, -í, n., wine.
vir, virí, m., man.
virgó, virginis, f., maiden.
virtús, -tútis [vir], f., manliness, courage, bravery.

vís, vís, f., violence, force; virtue, potency, efficacy; plur. vírés,

-ium, strength; omnibus víribus, with all one's strength, with might and main.

vísus, -ús [videó], m., sight.
víta, -ae [vívó], f., life.
vító, -áre, -áví, -átus, avoid, escape.
vívó, vívere, víxí, víctus, live.
vívus, -a, -um [vívó], alive, living.
vix, adv., with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, barely.
vocó, -áre, -áví, -átus [vóx], call, summon.
Volcánus, -í, m., Vulcan.
voló, -áre, -áví, -átúrus, fly.
voló, velle, voluí, wish.
volucris, -is [voló], f., bird.
voluntás, -tátis [voló], f., wish, will.
voluptás, -tátis [voló], f., pleasure.
vós, plur. of tú.
voró, -áre, -áví, -átus, swallow whole, devour.
vóx, vócis, f., voice; word.
vulneró, -áre, -áví, -átus [vulnus], wound.
vulnus, vulneris, n., wound.


Zephyrus, -í, m., Zephyrus, the west wind. Zétés, -ae, m., Zetes.

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