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  1. What are the characters of the law of nature?

  1. There can be assigned ten principal ones.

  1. Which is the first?

  1. To be inherent to the existence of things, and, consequently, primitive and anterior to every other law: so that all those which man has received, are only imitations of it, and their perfection is ascertained by the resemblance they bear to this primordial model.

  1. Which is the second?

  1. To be derived immediately from God, and presented by him to each man, whereas all other laws are presented to us by men, who may be either deceived or deceivers.

  1. Which is the third?

  1. To be common to all times, and to all countries, that is to say, one and universal.

  1. Is no other law universal?

  1. No: for no other is agreeable or applicable to all the people of the earth; they are all local and accidental, originating from circumstances of places and of persons; so that if such a man had not existed, or such an event happened, such a law would never have been enacted.

  1. Which is the fourth character?

  1. To be uniform and invariable.

  1. Is no other law uniform and invariable?

  1. No: for what is good and virtue according to one, is evil and vice according to another; and what one and the same law approves of at one time, it often condemns at another.

  1. Which is the fifth character?

  1. To be evident and palpable, because it consists entirely of facts incessantly present to the senses, and to demonstration.

  1. Are not other laws evident?

  1. No: for they are founded on past and doubtful facts, on equivocal and suspicious testimonies, and on proofs inaccessible to the senses.

  1. Which is the sixth character?

  1. To be reasonable, because its precepts and entire doctrine are conformable to reason, and to the human understanding.

  1. Is no other law reasonable?

  1. No: for all are in contradiction to the reason and the understanding of men, and tyrannically impose on him a blind and impracticable belief.

  1. Which is the seventh character?

  1. To be just, because in that law, the penalties are proportionate to the infractions.

  1. Are not other laws just?

  1. No: for they often exceed bounds, either in rewarding deserts, or in punishing delinquencies, and consider as meritorious or criminal, null or indifferent actions.

  1. Which is the eighth character?

  1. To be pacific and tolerant, because in the law of nature, all men being brothers and equal in rights, it recommends to them only peace and toleration, even for errors.

  1. Are not other laws pacific?

  1. No: for all preach dissension, discord, and war, and divide mankind by exclusive pretensions of truth and domination.

  1. Which is the ninth character?

  1. To be equally beneficent to all men, in teaching them the true means of becoming better and happier.

  1. Are not other laws beneficent likewise?

  1. No: for none of them teach the real means of attaining happiness; all are confined to pernicious or futile practices; and this is evident from facts, since after so many laws, so many religions, so many legislators and prophets, men are still as unhappy and ignorant, as they were six thousand years ago.

  1. Which is the last character of the law of nature?

  1. That it is alone sufficient to render men happier and better, because it comprises all that is good and useful in other laws, either civil or religious, that is to say, it constitutes essentially the moral part of them; so that if other laws were divested of it, they would be reduced to chimerical and imaginary opinions devoid of any practical utility.

  1. Recapitulate all those characters.

  1. We have said that the law of nature is,

  1. Primitive; 6. Reasonable;
  2. Immediate; 7. Just;
  3. Universal; 8. Pacific;
  4. Invariable; 9. Beneficent: and
  5. Evident; 10. Alone sufficient.

And such is the power of all these attributes of perfection and truth, that when in their disputes the theologians can agree upon no article of belief, they recur to the law of nature, the neglect of which, say they, forced God to send from time to time prophets to proclaim new laws; as if God enacted laws for particular circumstances, as men do; especially when the first subsists in such force, that we may assert it to have been at all times and in all countries the rule of conscience for every man of sense or understanding.

  1. If, as you say, it emanates immediately from God, does it teach his existence?

  1. Yes, most positively: for, to any man whatever, who observes with reflection the astonishing spectacle of the universe, the more he meditates on the properties and attributes of each being, on the admirable order and harmony of their motions, the more it is demonstrated that there exists a supreme agent, a universal and identic mover, designated by the appellation of God; and so true it is that the law of nature suffices to elevate him to the knowledge of God, that all which men have pretended to know by supernatural means, has constantly turned out ridiculous and absurd, and that they have ever been obliged to recur to the immutable conceptions of natural reason.

  1. Then it is not true that the followers of the law of nature are atheists?

  1. No; it is not true; on the contrary, they entertain stronger and nobler ideas of the Divinity than most other men; for they do not sully him with the foul ingredients of all the weaknesses and passions entailed on humanity.

  1. What worship do they pay to him?

  1. A worship wholly of action; the practice and observance of all the rules which the supreme wisdom has imposed on the motion of each being; eternal and unalterable rules, by which it maintains the order and harmony of the universe, and which, in their relations to man, constitute the law of nature.

  1. Was the law of nature known before this period:

  1. It has been at all times spoken of: most legislators pretend to adopt it as the basis of their laws; but they only quote some of its precepts, and have only vague ideas of its totality.

  1. Why.

  1. Because, though simple in its basis, it forms in its developements and consequences, a complicated whole which requires an extensive knowledge of facts, joined to all the sagacity of reasoning.

  1. Does not instinct alone teach the law of nature?

  1. No; for by instinct is meant nothing more than that blind sentiment by which we are actuated indiscriminately towards everything that flatters the senses.

  1. Why, then, is it said that the law of nature is engraved in the hearts of all men.

  1. It is said for two reasons: first, because it has been remarked, that there are acts and sentiments common to all men, and this proceeds from their common organization; secondly, because the first philosophers believed that men were born with ideas already formed, which is now demonstrated to be erroneous.

  1. Philosophers, then, are fallible?

  1. Yes, sometimes.

  1. Why so?

  1. First, because they are men; secondly, because the ignorant call all those who reason, right or wrong, philosophers; thirdly, because those who reason on many subjects, and who are the first to reason on them, are liable to be deceived.

  1. If the law of nature be not written, must it not become arbitrary and ideal?

  1. No: because it consists entirely in facts, the demonstration of which can be incessantly renewed to the senses, and constitutes a science as accurate and precise as geometry and mathematics; and it is because the law of nature forms an exact science, that men, born ignorant and living inattentive and heedless, have had hitherto only a superficial knowledge of it.

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