OR, MEDITATION ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF EMPIRES
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THE GREAT OBSTACLE TO IMPROVEMENT.
The Genius ceased. But preoccupied with melancholy thoughts, my
mind resisted persuasion; fearing, however, to shock him by my
resistance, I remained silent. After a while, turning to me with a
look which pierced my soul, he said:
Thou art silent, and thy heart is agitated with thoughts which it
dares not utter.
At last, troubled and terrified, I replied:
O Genius, pardon my weakness. Doubtless thy mouth can utter
nothing but truth; but thy celestial intelligence can seize its
rays, where my gross faculties can discern nothing but clouds. I
confess it; conviction has not penetrated my soul, and I feared
that my doubts might offend thee.
And what is doubt, replied he, that it should be a crime? Can man
feel otherwise than as he is affected? If a truth be palpable, and
of importance in practice, let us pity him that misconceives it.
His punishment will arise from his blindness. If it be uncertain
or equivocal, how is he to find in it what it has not? To believe
without evidence or proof, is an act of ignorance and folly. The
credulous man loses himself in a labyrinth of contradictions; the
man of sense examines and discusses, that he may be consistent in
his opinions. The honest man will bear contradiction; because it
gives rise to evidence. Violence is the argument of falsehood; and
to impose a creed by authority is the act and indication of a
O Genius, said I, encouraged by these words, since my reason is
free, I strive in vain to entertain the flattering hope with which
you endeavor to console me. The sensible and virtuous soul is
easily caught with dreams of happiness; but a cruel reality
constantly awakens it to suffering and wretchedness. The more I
meditate on the nature of man, the more I examine the present state
of societies, the less possible it appears to realize a world of
wisdom and felicity. I cast my eye over the whole of our
hemisphere; I perceive in no place the germ, nor do I foresee the
instinctive energy of a happy revolution. All Asia lies buried in
profound darkness. The Chinese, governed by an insolent
despotism,* by strokes of the bamboo and the cast of lots,
restrained by an immutable code of gestures, and by the radical
vices of an ill-constructed language, appear to be in their
abortive civilization nothing but a race of automatons. The
Indian, borne down by prejudices, and enchained in the sacred
fetters of his castes, vegetates in an incurable apathy. The
Tartar, wandering or fixed, always ignorant and ferocious, lives in
the savageness of his ancestors. The Arab, endowed with a happy
genius, loses its force and the fruits of his virtue in the anarchy
of his tribes and the jealousy of his families. The African,
degraded from the rank of man, seems irrevocably doomed to
servitude. In the North I see nothing but vilified serfs, herds of
men with which landlords stock their estates. Ignorance, tyranny,
and wretchedness have everywhere stupified the nations; and vicious
habits, depraving the natural senses, have destroyed the very
instinct of happiness and of truth.
- The emperor of China calls himself the son of heaven; that is, of
God: for in the opinion of the Chinese, the material of heaven, the
arbiter of fatality, is the Deity himself. "The emperor only shows
himself once in ten months, lest the people, accustomed to see him,
might lose their respect; for he holds it as a maxim that power can
only be supported by force, that the people have no idea of
justice, and are not to be governed but by coercion." Narrative of
two Mahometan travellers in 851 and 877, translated by the Abbe
Renaudot in 1718.
Notwithstanding what is asserted by the missionaries, this
situation has undergone no change. The bamboo still reigns in
China, and the son of heaven bastinades, for the most trivial
fault, the Mandarin, who in his turn bastinades the people. The
Jesuits may tell us that this is the best governed country in the
world, and its inhabitants the happiest of men: but a single letter
from Amyot has convinced me that China is a truly Turkish
government, and the account of Sonnerat confirms it. See Vol. II.
of Voyage aux Indes, in 4to.
As long as the Chinese shall in writing make use of their
present characters, they can be expected to make no progress in
civilization. The necessary introductory step must be the giving
them an alphabet like our own, or of substituting in the room of
their language that of the Tartars. The improvement made in the
latter by M. de Lengles, is calculated to introduce this change.
See the Mantchou alphabet, the production of a mind truly learned
in the formation of language.
In some parts of Europe, indeed, reason has begun to dawn, but even
there, do nations partake of the knowledge of individuals? Are the
talents and genius of governors turned to the benefit of the
people? And those nations which call themselves polished, are they
not the same that for the last three centuries have filled the
earth with their injustice? Are they not those who, under the
pretext of commerce, have desolated India, depopulated a new
continent, and, at present, subject Africa to the most barbarous
slavery? Can liberty be born from the bosom of despots? and shall
justice be rendered by the hands of piracy and avarice? O Genius,
I have seen the civilized countries; and the mockery of their
wisdom has vanished before my sight. I saw wealth accumulated in
the hands of a few, and the multitude poor and destitute. I have
seen all rights, all powers concentered in certain classes, and the
mass of the people passive and dependent. I have seen families of
princes, but no families of the nation. I have seen government
interests, but no public interests or spirit. I have seen that all
the science of government was to oppress prudently; and the refined
servitude of polished nations appeared to me only the more
One obstacle above all has profoundly struck my mind. On looking
over the world, I have seen it divided into twenty different
systems of religion. Every nation has received, or formed,
opposite opinions; and every one ascribing to itself the exclusive
possession of the truth, must believe the other to be wrong. Now
if, as must be the fact in this discordance of opinion, the greater
part are in error, and are honest in it, then it follows that our
mind embraces falsehood as it does truth; and if so, how is it to
be enlightened? When prejudice has once seized the mind, how is it
to be dissipated? How shall we remove the bandage from our eyes,
when the first article in every creed, the first dogma in all
religion, is the absolute proscription of doubt, the interdiction
of examination, and the rejection of our own judgment? How is
truth to make herself known?--If she resorts to arguments and
proofs, the timid man stifles the voice of his own conscience; if
she invokes the authority of celestial powers, he opposes it with
another authority of the same origin, with which he is preoccupied;
and he treats all innovation as blasphemy. Thus man in his
blindness, has riveted his own chains, and surrendered himself
forever, without defence, to the sport of his ignorance and his
To dissolve such fatal chains, a miraculous concurrence of happy
events would be necessary. A whole nation, cured of the delirium
of superstition, must be inaccessible to the impulse of fanaticism.
Freed from the yoke of false doctrine, a whole people must impose
upon itself that of true morality and reason. This people should
be courageous and prudent, wise and docile. Each individual,
knowing his rights, should not transgress them. The poor should
know how to resist seduction, and the rich the allurements of
avarice. There should be found leaders disinterested and just, and
their tyrants should be seized with a spirit of madness and folly.
This people, recovering its rights, should feel its inability to
exercise them in person, and should name its representatives.
Creator of its magistrates, it should know at once to respect them
and to judge them. In the sudden reform of a whole nation,
accustomed to live by abuses, each individual displaced should bear
with patience his privations, and submit to a change of habits.
This nation should have the courage to conquer its liberty; the
power to defend it, the wisdom to establish it, and the generosity
to extend it to others. And can we ever expect the union of so
many circumstances? But suppose that chance in its infinite
combinations should produce them, shall I see those fortunate days.
Will not my ashes long ere then be mouldering in the tomb?
Here, sunk in sorrow, my oppressed heart no longer found utterance.
The Genius answered not, but I heard him whisper to himself:
Let us revive the hope of this man; for if he who loves his fellow
creatures be suffered to despair, what will become of nations? The
past is perhaps too discouraging; I must anticipate futurity, and
disclose to the eye of virtue the astonishing age that is ready to
begin; that, on viewing the object she desires, she may be animated
with new ardor, and redouble her efforts to attain it.