THE TWELVE CAESARS
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Lives of the Grammarians -
Lives of the Poets
 A.U.C. 709.
See before, c. xxii.
This senate-house stood in that part of the Campus Martius which is
now the Campo di Fiore, and was attached by Pompey, "spoliis Orientis
Onustus," to the magnificent theatre, which he built A.U.C. 698, in his
second consulship. His statue, at the foot of which Caesar fell, as
Plutarch tells us, was placed in it. We shall find that Augustus caused
it to be removed.
The stylus, or graphium, was an iron pen, broad at one end, with a
sharp point at the other, used for writing upon waxen tables, the leaves
or bark of trees, plates of brass, or lead, etc. For writing upon paper
or parchment, the Romans employed a reed, sharpened and split in the
point like our pens, called calamus, arundo, or canna. This they dipped
in the black liquor emitted by the cuttle fish, which served for ink.
It was customary among the ancients, in great extremities to shroud
the face, in order to conceal any symptoms of horror or alarm which the
countenance might express. The skirt of the toga was drawn round the
lower extremities, that there might be no exposure in falling, as the
Romans, at this period, wore no covering for the thighs and legs.
Caesar's dying apostrophe to Brutus is represented in all the
editions of Suetonius as uttered in Greek, but with some variations. The
words, as here translated, are Kai su ei ekeinon; kai su teknon. The
Salmasian manuscript omits the latter clause. Some commentators suppose
that the words "my son," were not merely expressive of the difference of
age, or former familiarity between them, but an avowal that Brutus was
the fruit of the connection between Julius and Servilia, mentioned before
[see p. 33]. But it appears very improbable that Caesar, who had never
before acknowledged Brutus to be his son, should make so unnecessary an
avowal, at the moment of his death. Exclusively of this objection, the
apostrophe seems too verbose, both for the suddenness and urgency of the
occasion. But this is not all. Can we suppose that Caesar, though a
perfect master of Greek, would at such a time have expressed himself in
that language, rather than in Latin, his familiar tongue, and in which he
spoke with peculiar elegance? Upon the whole, the probability is, that
the words uttered by Caesar were, Et tu Brute! which, while equally
expressive of astonishment with the other version, and even of
tenderness, are both more natural, and more emphatic.
Men' me servasse, ut essent qui me perderent?
The Bulla, generally made of gold, was a hollow globe, which boys
wore upon their breast, pendant from a string or ribbon put round the
neck. The sons of freedmen and poor citizens used globes of leather.
 Josephus frequently mentions the benefits conferred on his
countrymen by Julius Caesar. Antiq. Jud. xiv. 14, 15, 16.
 Appian informs us that it was burnt by the people in their fury,
c. xi. p. 521.
 Suetonius particularly refers to the conspirators, who perished at
the battle of Philippi, or in the three years which intervened. The
survivors were included in the reconciliation of Augustus, Antony, and
Pompey, A.U.C. 715.
 Suetonius alludes to Brutus and Cassius, of whom this is related
by Plutarch and Dio.
 For observations on Dr. Thomson's Essays appended to Suetonius's
History of Julius Caesar, and the succeeding Emperors, see the Preface to
 He who has a devoted admiration of Cicero, may be sure that he has
made no slight proficiency himself.